The Impact of Short-Term Climate Change on British and French Agriculture and Population in the First Half of the 18th Century

  • Axel Michaelowa
Chapter

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on human societies have become a major political issue in the last decade. In this context, the study of the impacts of climate change in the past gains new importance as it can provide insights into societal adaptation processes. Economic history has so far played only a minor role in such analysis. Besides the work of Pfister (1984a, b, 1988, 1990) for Switzerland, Parry (1978) for the English-Scottish border and Lachiver (1991) and Lebrun (1971) for France, only a few scattered studies have appeared (see Galloway, 1994, for a thorough analysis of demographic impacts). This can only partly be explained by lack of data. For England, a wealth of demographic and climatic data exists back into the 17th century. The database for France is much scantier but has improved through recent research (Lachiver, 1991).

Keywords

Real Wage Economic History Marriage Rate Epidemic Disease Climatic Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appleby, A.B., 1975, Nutrition and Disease the Case of London 1550–1750, J. of Interdisciplinary Economics 6: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleby, A.B., 1979, Grain Prices and Subsistence Crises in England and France 1590–1740, J. of Economic History 39: 865–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton, T., 1955a, Economic Fluctuations in England 1700–1800, Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Ashton, T., 19556, An Economic History of England - the 18th Century,Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  5. Baehrel, R., 1961, Une croissance. La basse-Provence rurale (fin XVI siècle —1789), S.E.V.P.E.N, Paris. Bairoch, P., 1976, Die Landwirtschaft und die Industrielle Revolution 1700–1914, in: Cipolla, C.M. andGoogle Scholar
  6. Borchardt, K., Europäische Wirtschaftsgeschichte, vol. 3: Die Industrielle Revolution,UTB, Stuttgart, 297–332.Google Scholar
  7. Boserup, E., 1981, Population and Technological Change: A Study of Long-Term Trends, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  8. Bourke, A., 1984, The Impact of Climatic Fluctuations on Agriculture, in: Flohn, H. and Fantechi, R., eds., The Climate of EuropePast, Present and Future, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 269–314.Google Scholar
  9. Brooks, C.E.P., and Glasspole, J., 1928, British Floods and Droughts, Brill, London.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, R., 1991, Society and Economy in Modern Britain 1700–1850,London.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, B., and Overton, M., 1998, L’histoire agraire de l’Angleterre avant 1850. Bilan historiographique et état actuel de la recherche, Historie et Sociétés Rurales 9: 77–105.Google Scholar
  12. Chambers, J.D., and Mingay, G.E., 1966, The Agricultural Revolution 1750–1880,Batsford, London. Charlesworth, A., 1983, An Atlas of Rural Protest in Britain 1548–1900,London.Google Scholar
  13. Chartres, J., ed., 1990, Agricultural Markets and Trade 1500–1750, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Clark, G., 1992, The Economics of Exhaustion, the Postan Thesis and the Agricultural Revolution, J. of Economic History 52: 61–84.Google Scholar
  14. Coleman, D.C., 1977, The Economy of England 1450–1750,London.Google Scholar
  15. Craddock, J.M., and Wales-Smith, B.G., 1977, Monthly Rainfall Totals Representing the East Midlands 17261975, Meteorological Magazine 106: 97–111.Google Scholar
  16. Deane, P., and Cole, W.A., 1962, British Economic Growth 1688–1959, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Desplat, C., 1987, The climate of 18`“-century Béarn, French History 1 (1): 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Drummond, J.C., and Wilbraham, A., 1957, The Englishman’s Food,2nd ed., London.Google Scholar
  19. Dupaquier, J., 1997, La France avant la transition demographique, in: Bardet, J-P. and Dupaquier, J., eds., Histoire des populations de l ‘Europe, vol. 1, Flammarion, 435–452.Google Scholar
  20. Grenier, J.-Y., Dupaquier, J., and Burguière, A., 1988, Croissance et déstabilisation, in: Dupaquier, J., ed., Histoire de la population Française, De la Renaissance à 1789, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 437–498.Google Scholar
  21. Engelen, A., and Nellestijn, J., 1996, Monthly, seasonal and annual means of the air temperature in tenths of centigrade in De Bilt, Netherlands, 1706–1790, mimeo,De Bilt.Google Scholar
  22. Flohn, H., 1981, Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Economic Role, in: Wigley, T.M.L., Ingram, M. I.Google Scholar
  23. and Farmer, G., eds., Climate and History,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 310–318. Floud, R., Wachter, K., and Gregory, A., 1990, Height, Health and History,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Floud, R., Wachter, K., and Gregory, A., 1993, Measuring Historical Heights–Short Cuts or the Long Way Round: A Reply to Komlos, The Economic History Review 46: 145–154.Google Scholar
  25. Fussell, G.E., 1933, Farmers’ Calendars from Tusser to Arthur Young, Economic History 1: 521–535.Google Scholar
  26. Galloway, P.R., 1985, Annual Variations in Deaths by Age, Deaths by Cause, Prices and Weather in London 1670–1830, Population Studies 39: 487–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galloway, P.R., 1994, Secular changes in the short-term preventive, positive and temperature checks to population growth in Europe, 1460 to 1909, Climatic Change 26: 3–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grigg, D., 1980, Population Growth and Agrarian Change - a Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Habbakuk, H.J., 1987, The Agrarian History of England and Wales–Regional Farming Systems and Agrarian Change 1640–1750, The Economic History Review 40: 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Havinden, M.A., 1961, Agricultural Progress in Open-Field Oxfordshire, Agricultural History Review 9:73–83. Houston, R.A., 1986, British Society in the Eighteenth Century, Journal of British Studies 25: 436–466.Google Scholar
  31. Jones, E.L., 1981, Agriculture 1700–1800, in: Floud, R. and McCloskey, D.N., The Economic History of Britain since 1700, vol. 1, 1700–1860, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 66–86.Google Scholar
  32. Kaplan, S., 1976, Bread, politics and political economy in the reign of Louis XV, 2 vols, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  33. Kaplan, S., 1982, Le complot de famine - histoire d’une rumeur au XVIII siècle, Armand Colin, Paris. Kaplan, S., 1984, Provisioning Paris, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  34. Komlos, J., 1993a, The Secular Trend in the Biological Standard of Living in the United Kingdom 1730–1860, The Economic History Review 46: 115–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Komlos, J., 1993b, Further Thoughts on the Nutritional Status of the British Population, The Economic History Review 46: 363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kussmaul, A., 1990, A General View of the Rural Economy of England 1538–1840, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Labrousse, E., Romano, R., and Dreyfus, F., 1970, Le prix du froment en France du temps de la monnaie stable ( 1726–1913 ), S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris.Google Scholar
  38. Lachiver, M., 1969, La population de Meulan du 17 au 19 siècle (vers 1600–1870), S.E. V. P.E.N, Paris.Google Scholar
  39. Lachiver, M., 1991, Les années de misère. La famine au temps du Grand Roi 1680–1720, Fayard, Paris.Google Scholar
  40. Lamb, H.H., 1965, Britain’s Changing Climate, in: Johnson, C.G. and Smith, L.P., eds., The Biological Significance of Climatic Change in Britain, London, 4–31.Google Scholar
  41. Lamb, H.H., 1977, Climate - Present, Past and Future, 2 vols., Methuen, London 1977.Google Scholar
  42. Lamb, H.H., 1988, Weather, Climate and Human Affairs, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  43. Landers, J., and Mouzas, A., 1988, Burial Seasonality and Causes of Death in London 1670–1819, in: Population Studies 42: 59–83.Google Scholar
  44. Lebrun, F., 1971, Les hommes et la mort en Anjou au 17e et 18e siècle, Mouton, Paris.Google Scholar
  45. Lebrun, F., 1980, Les crises démographiques en France aux XVII et XVIII siècles, Annales E.S.C., 35, 2, 205–234.Google Scholar
  46. Lee, R., 1981, Short-Term Variation–Vital Rates, Prices and Weather, in: Wrigley, E. and Schofield, R., The Population History of England, Edward Arnold, London, 356–401.Google Scholar
  47. Legrand, J.-P., LeGoff, M., 1992, Les observations météorologiques de Louis Morin, Monographie 6, Direction de la Météorologie Nationale, Paris.Google Scholar
  48. LeRoy Ladurie, E., 1960, La production agricole en France (15–18 siècle) notamment d’après les dimes,mimeo, Paris.Google Scholar
  49. LeRoy Ladurie, E., 1983, Histoire du climat depuis l’an mil, 2 vols, Flammarion, Paris. Malthus, T., 1798, An Essay on the Principle of Population, London.Google Scholar
  50. Manley, G., 1952, Climate and the British Scene, Collins, London.Google Scholar
  51. Manley, G., 1974, Central England Temperatures–Monthly Means 1659–1973, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorogical Society 100: 389–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marshall, J.D., 1980, Agrarian Wealth and Social Structure in Pre-Industrial Cumbria, The Economic History Review 33: 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meuvret, J., 1977, Le problème des subsistances à l’époque Louis XIV, La production des céréales dans la France du XVII au XVIII siècle, Mouton, Paris.Google Scholar
  54. Meuvret, J., 1987, Le problème des subsistances à l’époque Louis XIV, La production des céréales et la société rurale, EHESS, Paris.Google Scholar
  55. Meuvret, J., 1988, Le problème des subsistances à l’époque Louis XIV, Le commerce des grains et la conjoncture, EHESS, Paris.Google Scholar
  56. Monteith, J.L., and Scott, R.K., 1982, Weather and Yield Variation of Crops, in: Blaxter, K. and Fowden, L., eds., Food, Nutrition and Climate, London, 127–153.Google Scholar
  57. Morineau, M., 1971, Les faux-semblants d’un demarrage économique: agriculture et démographie en France au 18e siècle, Cahiers des Annales 30, Armand Colin, Paris.Google Scholar
  58. Newby, H., 1987, Country Life - A Social History of Rural England,Totowa.Google Scholar
  59. O’Brien, P.K., 1977, Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution, The Economic History Review 30:166–181. O’Brien, P.K., 1985, Agriculture and the Home Market for English Industry 1660–1820, English Historical Review 10: 771–798.Google Scholar
  60. Olney, M.L., 1983, Fertility and the Standard of Living in Early Modern England–In Consideration of Wrigley and Schofield, The Journal of Economic History 43: 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Parry, M.L., 1978, Climatic Change, Agriculture and Settlement, Dawson, Folkestone.Google Scholar
  62. Parry, M.L., 1990, Climate Change and World Agriculture, Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  63. Parry, M.L., and Carter, T.R., 1985, The Effect of Climatic Variations on Agricultural Risk, Climatic Change 7: 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pfister, C., 1984a, Bevölkerung, Klima und Agrarmodernisierung, Haupt, Berne.Google Scholar
  65. Pfister, C., 1984b, Das Klima der Schweiz von 1525–1860 und seine Bedeutung in der Geschichte von Bevölkerung und Landwirtschaft, Haupt, Berne.Google Scholar
  66. Pfister, C., 1988, Fluctuations climatiques et prix céréaliers en Europe du XVIe au XXe siècle, Annales E.S.C. 43 (1): 25–53.Google Scholar
  67. Pierenkemper, T., 1989, Englische Agrarrevolution und preußisch-deutsche Agrarreformen in vergleichenderGoogle Scholar
  68. Perspektive, in: Pierenkemper, T., ed., Landwirtschaft und industrielle Entwicklung,Stuttgart, 7–25. Post, J.D., 1985, Food Shortage, Climatic Variability and Epidemic Disease in Preindustrial Europe,Cornell University Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  69. Pousson, J.-P., 1980, Les crises démographiques en milieu urbain: l’exemple de Bordeaux (fin XVII–fin XVII siècle), Annales E.S.C. 35 (2): 235–252.Google Scholar
  70. v. Rudloff, H., 1967, Die Schwankungen und Pendelungen des Klimas seit Beginn der regelmäßigen Instrumenten-Beobachtungen,Braunschweig.Google Scholar
  71. Schofield, R., 1983, The Impact of Scarcity and Plenty on Population Change in England 1541–1871, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14: 265–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thirsk, J., 1990, Agricultural Change - Policy and Practice 1500–1750, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  73. Turner, M., 1986, English Open Fields and Enclosures–Retardation or Productivity Improvements, The Journal of Economic History 36: 669–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wanner, T., Pfister, C., Brazdil, R., Frich, P., Frydendahl, K., Jónsson, T., Kington, J., Lamb, H.H., Rosen0rn, S., and Wishman, E., 1995, Wintertime European Circulation Patterns During the Late Maunder Minimum Cooling Period (1675–1704), Theoretical and Applied Climatology 51:167–175.Google Scholar
  75. Wanner, T., Brazdil, R., Frich, P., Frydendahl, K., Jónsson, T., Kington, J., Pfister, C., Rosen0rn, S., and Wishman, E., 1994, Synoptic interpretation of monthly weather maps for the Late Maunder Minimum (1675–1704), in: Frenzel, B., Pfister, C. and Gläser, B., eds., Climatic trends and anomalies in Europe 1675–1715, Stuttgart, 401–424.Google Scholar
  76. Wigley, T.M.L. et al.,1985, Historical Climate Impact Assessments, in: Kates, R.W., Ausubel, J.H. and Berberian, M., eds., Climate Impact Assessment - Studies of the Interaction of Climate and Society (Scope 27), John Wiley & Sons, New York, 529–564.Google Scholar
  77. Wordie, J.R., 1983, The Chronology of English Enclosure 1500–1914, The Economic History Review 36: 483–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wrigley, E., 1982, The Growth of Population in 18th Century England–A Conundrum Resolved, Past and Present 98: 121–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wrigley, E., 1989, Some reflexions on corn yields and prices in preindustrial economies, in: Walter, J. and Schofield, R., eds., Famine, disease and the social order in early modern society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 235–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wrigley, E., and Schofield, R.: 1981, The Population History of England, Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Axel Michaelowa
    • 1
  1. 1.Hamburg Institute for International EconomicsHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations