Skip to main content

Oral Health

  • Chapter

Abstract

Why include a chapter on oral health in a rural health textbook? Is dentistry so unique among the health professions that it warrants a separate discussion from a more generic discourse on health services? The answer is yes ... and no. On one hand, there are a number of unique features about oral health and oral health services that set them apart from other health services. On the other hand, just as the mouth is part of the body, oral health is an essential and integral component of overall health and should not be isolated from any analysis of health services.

Keywords

  • Oral Health
  • Oral Cancer
  • Dental Care
  • Rural Health
  • Dental Service

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4757-3310-5_13
  • Chapter length: 23 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4757-3310-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Allukian, M., Jr., & Horowitz, A. M. (1998). Effective community prevention programs for oral diseases. In G. M. Gluck & W. M. Morganstein (Eds.), Jong’s community dental health (4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Cancer Society. (1999). Cancer statistics: Oral cavity and pharynx/uterine cervix. (December 17, 1999); http://www.cancer.org/statistics/cff99/ selectedcancers.html#oral/; http://www.cancer.org/ statistics/cff99/selectedcancers.html#cervix.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Society of Plastic Surgeons. (1997). Cleft lip and palate surgery (December 17, 1999); http:// www.plasticsurgery.org/profinfo/pospap/cle.htm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bader, J. D., Scurria, M. S., & Shugars, D. A. (1994). Urban/rural differences in prosthetic dental service rates. Journal of Rural Health, 10, 26–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berman, S. (1995). Uninsured children. An unintended consequence of health care system reform efforts. 1472–1473.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhat, M, & Li, S. H. (1990). Consumer product-related tooth injuries treated in hospital emergency rooms: United States, 1979–87. Com- munity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 18, 133–138.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bloom, B., Gift, H. C., & Jack, S. S. (1992). Dental services and oral health: United States, 1989. Vital and health statistics, Series 10(183). National Center for Health Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bloom, B., Simpson, G., Cohen, R. A., & Parsons, P. E. (1997). Access to health care. Part 2: Working-age adults. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10(197). National Center for Health Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonito, A. J., & Gooch, R. (1992). Modeling the oral health needs of 12- to 13-year-olds in the Baltimore MSA: Results from one ICS-II study site. Pa-per presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, November.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L. J., & Lazar, V. (1999a). Dental care utilization: how saturated is the patient market? Journal of the American Dental Association, 130, 573–580.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L. J., & Lazar, V. (1999b). Trends in the dental health work force. Journal of the American Dental Association, 130, 1743–1749.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L. J., Brunelle, J. A., & Kingman, A. (1996). Periodontal status in the United States, 1988–91: Prevalence, extent, and demographic variation. Journal of Dental Research, 75 (special issue), 672–683.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burger, A. D., Boehm, J. M., & Sellaro, C. L. (1997). Dental disease preventive programs in a rural Appalachian population. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 71, 117–122.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burt, B. (1989). Proceedings of the workshop: Cost-effectiveness of caries prevention in dental public health. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 49 (special issue), 279–289.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burt, B. A., & Eklund, S. A. (1992). Dentistry, dental practice, and the community (4th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bushy, A. (1990). Rural United States women: Traditions and transitions affecting health care. Health Care for Women International, 11, 503–513.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cageorge, S. M., Ryding, W. H., & Leake, J. L. (1980). Dental health status survey of Manitoba children. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, 2, 108–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Call, R. L. (1989). Effects of poverty on children’s dental health. Pediatrician, 16, 200–206.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Caplan, D. J., & Weintraub, J. A. (1993). The oral health burden in the United States: A summary of recent epidemiological studies. Journal of Dental Education, 57, 853–862.

    Google Scholar 

  • Casey, M. M. (1999). Rural managed care. In T. C. Ricketts (Ed.), Rural health in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Center for Health Economics Research. (1993). Access to health care: Key indicators for policy. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1992). Public health focus: fluoridation of community water systems. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 41, 372–375, 381.

    Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1993). Cigarette smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost-United States, 1990. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 42, 645–649.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chollett, D. (1987). Uninsured in the United States: The nonelderly population without health insurance. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, R. A., Bloom, B., Simpson, G., & Parsons, P. E. (1997). Access to health care. Part 3: Older adults. Vital Health Statistics, 10(198). National Center for Health Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crall, J. (1998). The dental workforce. In G. M. Gluck & W. M. Morganstein (Eds.), Jong’s community dental health ( 4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dane, J. N. (1990). The Missouri Elks mobile dental program-dental care for developmentally disabled persons. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 50, 4247.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, K., Collins, K. S., & Hall, A. (1999). Community health centers in a changing United States health care system (policy brief). New York: Commonwealth Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglass, C. W., & Cole, K. O. (1979). Utilization of dental services in the United States. Journal of Dental Education, 43, 223–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edelstein, B. L. (1997). Public financing of dental coverage for children: Medicaid, Medicaid managed care, and state programs. A briefing paper prepared for the Reforming States Group. San Francisco: Reforming States Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edelstein, B. L. (1998). Fact sheet on children’s dental care in CHIP. Washington, DC: Children’s Dental Health Project.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fasciano, N. J., Felt-Lisk, S., Ricketts, T. C., & Popkin, B. (1999). Preparing rural communities for man-aged care: Lessons learned. Journal of Rural Health, 15, 78–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gift, H. C. (1995). Dental utilization in the context of dental insurance on other socioeconomic factors, United States, 1988–1991. Paper presented at a symposium of the 24th annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grau, A. J., Buggle, F., Ziegler, C., Schwarz, W., Meuser, J., Tasman, A.-J., Bühler, A., Benesch, C., Becher, H., & Hacke, W. (1997). Association between acute cerebrovascular ishemia and chronic and recurrent infection. Stroke, 28, 1724–1729.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grossi, S. G., & Genco, R. J. (1998). Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: A two-way relationship. Annals of Periodontology, 3, 51–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grumbach, K., Seifer, S., Vranizan, K. Keane, D., Osmond, D., Soffel, D., Huang, K., & Bindman, A. B. (1995). Primary care resources and preventable hospitalizations in California. Berke-ley: California Policy Seminar.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartley, D., Jackson, J., Mueller, K. J., Nichols, A., & Williams, V. (1999). AHCPR-funded rural managed care centers: Report from the field. Journal of Rural Health, 15, 87–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Health Care Financing Administration. (1999). Nationalhealth expenditures by type of service and source of funds: Calendar years 1960–97. Baltimore, MD (July 27, 1999); http://www.hcfa.gov/stats/ nhe-oact/nhe.htm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz, A. M. (1995). The public’s oral health: The gaps between what we know and what we practice. Advances in Dental Research, 9, 91–95.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz, A. M., & Nourjah, P. A. (1996). Patterns of screening for oral cancers among United States adults. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 56,333335.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz, A. M., Goodman, H. S., Yellowitz, J. A., & Nourjah, P. A. (1996). The need for health promotion in oral cancer prevention and early detection. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 56, 319–330.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine (1993). Access to health care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (1995). Dental education at the crossroads: Challenges and change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Isman, R. (1993). The definition of primary oral health care, how it is part of primary health care, and how it can be integrated into primary health care deliv-ery. Unpublished paper prepared for the United States Health Resources Services & Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Rockville, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Isman, R. (1996, November 21). A comparison of Medicaid dental services provided under fee-for-service and dental managed care arrangements. Paper presented at the 124th annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Isman, R., & Isman, B. (1997). Access to oral health services in the United States: 1997 and beyond. Chicago: Oral Health America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan, D. W., Brindis, C. D., Phibbs, S. L., Melinkovich, P., Naylor, K., & Ahlstrand, K. (1999). A comparison study of an elementary school-based health center. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 235–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kassab, C., Luloff, A. E., Kelsey, T. W., & Smith, S. M. (1996). The influence of insurance status and income on health care use among the nonmetropolitan elderly. Journal of Rural Health 1289–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaste, L. M., Selwitz, R. H., Oldakowski, R. J., Brunelle, J. A., Winn, D. M., & Brown, J. (1996a). Coronal caries in the primary and permanent dentition of children and adolescents 1–17 years of age: United States, 1988–1991. Journal of Dental Research, 75 (special issue),631–641.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaste, L. M., Gift, H. C., Bhat, M., & Swango, P. A. (1996b). Prevalence of incisor trauma in persons 6 to 50 years of age: United States, 1988–1991. Journal of Dental Research, 75 (special issue),696705.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keane, C. R., Lave, J. R., Ricci, E. M., & LaVallee, C. P. (1999). The impact of a children’s health insurance program by age. Pediatrics, 104, 1051–1058.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiyak, H. A., Grayston, M. N., & Crinean, C. L. (1993). Oral health problems and needs of nursing home residents. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 21, 49–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lave, J. R., Keane, C. R., Lin, C. J., Ricci, E. M., Amersbach, G & LaVallee, C. P. (1998a). The impact of lack of health insurance on children. Journal of the American Medical Association 2791820–1825.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lave, J. R., Keane, C. R., Lin, C. J., Ricci, E. M., Amersbach, G., & LaVallee, C. P. (1998b). The impact of lack of health insurance on children. Journal of Health & Social Policy, 102, 57–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lear, J. G., Eichner, N., & Koppelman, J. (1999). The growth of school-based health centers and the role of state policies. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1531177–1180.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liang, J. N., & Ogur, J. D. (1987). Restrictions on dental auxiliaries: An economic policy analysis. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandel, I. D. (1994). Antimicrobial mouthrinses: Overview and update. Journal of the American Dental Association 1252S–10S.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marcus, S. E., Drury, T. E., Brown, L. J., & Zion, G. R. (1996). Tooth retention and tooth loss in the permanent dentition of adults: United States, 19881991. Journal of Dental Research, 75 (special issue),684–695.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mertz, E., Grumbach, K, MacIntosh, L., & Coffman, J. (2000). Geographic distribution of dentists in California. Dental shortage areas, 1998. San Francisco: Center for California Health Workforce Studies, Center for the Health Professions, University of California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milgrom, P. Hujoel, P Grembowski, D., & Ward, J. M. (1997). Making Medicaid child dental services work: a partnership in Washington State. Journal of the American Dental Association 12814401466.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, J. E., Jr. (1996). Mobile dentistry. Tulsa: PennWell Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Association of Dental Plans. (1997). Dental marketplace facts. (July 6, 1997); h t t p://www.nadp.org/mktfact.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Association of Dental Plans. (1999). The dental benefits industry at a glance. Press release (April 16, 1999) http://www.nadp.org/NEWS/ FrontPageNews/ Dental_Apri11699.htm.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Cancer Institute. (1999). SEER Cancer statistics review, 1973–1996. Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Cancer Statistics Branch.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Health Statistics. (1999). Initiatives and other activities: Healthy people 2000. Hyattsville, MD (December 17, 1999) http:// www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hp2000/ oralhealth/disparitycharts.ppt.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Injury Information Clearinghouse. (1995). Estimates for sports injuries. Washington, DC: United States Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Institute of Dental Research. (1987). Oral health of United States adults: The national survey of oral health in United States employed adults and seniors: 1985–1986. (NIH pub. no. 87-2868). Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Safe Kids Campaign. (1996). Sports injury fact sheet. Washington, DC: National Safe Kids Campaign.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newacheck, P., Stoddard, J. J., Hughes, D. C., & Pearl, M. (1997). Children’s access to health care: the role of social and economic factors. In R. E. K. Stein (Ed.), Health care for Children: What’s right, what’s wrong, what’s next. New York: United Hospital Fund of New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newbrun, E. (1989). Effectiveness of water fluoridation. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 49279–289.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newman, J E, & Anderson, O. W. (1972). Patterns of dental service utilization in the United States: A nationwide social survey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • North Carolina Area Health Education Centers Program. (1999). AHEC and rural North Carolina. Dental rotation in Cherokee; http://www.med.unc.edu/ ahec/ruraldentist.htm

    Google Scholar 

  • Offenbacher, S., Katz, V., Fertik, G., Collins, J., Boyd, D., Maynor, G., McKaig, R., & Beck, J. (1996). Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. Journal of Periodontology 671103–1113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of Technology Assessment. (1990). Health care in rural America. (Publication no. OTA-H-34). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Neil, E. H., & Pew Health Professions Commission. (1998). Recreating health professional practice for a new century. The fourth report of the Pew Health Professions Commission. San Francisco: Pew Health Professions Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pendrys, D. G. (1998). The epidemiology of oral diseases. In G. M. Gluck & W. M. Morganstein (Eds.), Jong’s community dental health ( 4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, P. E, & Pedersen, K. M. (1984). Socioeconomic demand model for dental visits. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology 12361–365.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pew Health Professions Commission. (1995). Critical challenges: Revitalizing the health professions for the twenty-first century. The third report of the Pew Health Professions Commission. San Francisco: Pew Health Professions Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Public Health Service, Bureau of Health Professions. (1991). Health status of minorities and low-income groups (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • Railway dental car services provided to Northland. (1969). Journal of the Ontario Dental Association 46169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ries, L. A. G., Miller, B. A., Hankey, B. F., Kasary, C. L., Harras, A., & Edwards, B. K. (Eds.). (1994). SEER cancer statistics review 1973–1991: Tables and graphs. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowland, D., & Lyons, B. (1989). Triple jeopardy: Rural, poor, and uninsured. Health Services Research 23975–1004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scannapieco, F. A., Papandonatos, G. D., & Dunford, R. G. (1998). Associations between oral conditions and respiratory disease in a national sample survey population. Annals of Periodontology, 3, 251–256.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selwitz, R. H., Winn, D. M., Kingman, A., & Zion, G. R. (1996). The prevalence of dental sealants in the United States population: Findings from NHANES III, 1988–91. Journal of Dental Research 75 (Special Issue)652–660.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silverman, S., Jr. (1990). Oral cancer. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simpson, G., Bloom, B., Cohen, R. A., & Parsons, P. E. (1997). Access to health care. Part 1: Children. Vital Health Statistics 10(196). National Center for Health Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, M. W., Kreutzer, R. A., Goldman, L., Casey-Paal, A., & Kizer, K. W. (1996). How economic demand influences access to medical care for rural Hispanic children. Medical Care, 11, 1135–1148.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soporowski, N. J., Tesini, D. A., & Weiss, A. I. (1994). Survey of oralfacial sports-related injuries. Journal of the Massachusetts Dental Society 431620.

    Google Scholar 

  • State of California, Rural Health Policy Council. (1999). Notes from the Rural Health Policy Council public meeting, October 1999. Rural Health Newscast, 3, 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suomi, J. D., Peterson, J. K., Matthews, B. L., Voglesong, R. H., & Lyman, B. A. (1980). Effects of supervised daily dental plaque removal by children after 3 years. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 8, 171–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P., Puskin, D., Cooley, S. G., & Braden, J. (1993). Access. In J. F. Van Nostrand (Ed.), Common beliefs about the rural elderly: What do national data tell us? (DHHS publication [no. 93–1412). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, J. E G., & Startup, R. (1992). Some social correlates with the dental health of young children. Community Dental Health, 9, 11–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (1996). (December 17, 1999); http:// www4.umdnj.edu/-plsurweb/rcpp/ introduction.html.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Children’s dental services under Medicaid: Access and utilization. (OEI–09–93–00240). San Francisco: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. General Accounting Office. (1980). Increased use of expanded function dental auxiliaries would benefit consumers dentists and taxpayers. (Publication No. HRD-80–51.) Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. General Accounting Office. (1994). Health professions education: Role of Title VIIIVIII programs in improving access to care is unclear. (Publication no. GAO/HEHS-94–164). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. General Accounting Office. (1995a). Health care shortage areas: Designations not a useful tool for directing resources to the underserved. (Publication no. GAO/HEHS-95–200). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. General Accounting Office. (1995b). Health care: School-based health centers can expand access for children. (Publication no. GAO/HEHS-95–35). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. General Accounting Office. (1997). Health care access: Opportunities to target programs and improve accountability. (Publication No. GAO/ HEHS-97–204). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valla, M. E., & Westcott, R. C. (1996). Mobile dental unit brings services to the young and needy. New York State Dental Journal 6232–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Venezie, R. D., Garvan, C. W., Mitchell, G. S., Yin, M., & Conti, A. J. (1997). Accessibility and barriers to dental care in the Florida Medicaid program: A report to the Agency for Health Care Administration. Gainesville: University of Florida, College of Dentistry.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voelker, R. (1998). Does managed care fit for rural America? Advances (Issue 4 ). Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yokes, E. E., Weichselbaum, R. R., Lippman, S. M., Hong, W. K. (1993). Head and neck cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 184–194.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Waldman, H. B. (1990). Confirming the continuing potential for pediatric dental services in nonurban areas. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 57,421–423.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waldman, H. B. (1994b). Pediatric dentistry and national health insurance: A more than favorable opportunity. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 61, 361–364.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waldman, H. B. (1998). More children are unable to get dental care than any other single health service. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 65, 204–208.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weinert, C., & Long, K. (1990). Rural families and health care: Refining the knowledge base. In D. Unger & M. Sussman (Eds.), Families in community settings. Interdisciplinary perspectives. Binghamton, NY: Hawthorne.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winn, D. M., Brunelle, J. A., Selwitz, R. H., Kaste, L. M., Oldakowski, R. J., Kingman, A., & Brown, L. J. (1996). Coronal and root caries in the dentition of adults in the United States, 1988–1991. Journal of Dental Research, 75 (special issue),642–651.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yellowitz, J. A., & Goodman, H. S. (1995). Physicians’ and dentists’ oral cancer knowledge, opinions and practice. Journal of the American Dental Association, 126, 53–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yellowitz, J. A., Goodman, H. S., Horowitz, A. M., & al-Tannir, M. A. (1995). Assessment of alcohol and tobacco use in dental schools’ health history forms. Journal of Dental Education, 59, 1091–1096.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2001 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Isman, R. (2001). Oral Health. In: Loue, S., Quill, B.E. (eds) Handbook of Rural Health. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3310-5_13

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3310-5_13

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-3347-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-3310-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive