Hallucinogens and Related Drugs

  • Marc A. Schuckit
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


This chapter covers the variety of substances listed in Table 8.1, each of which can enhance sensory perceptions such as colors and sounds. However, the hallucinogens rarely produce schizophrenialike auditory hallucinations without insight in the context of a clear sensorium and, thus, are not truly “psychotomimetic.”1–4 In fact, when hallucinations do occur at high doses of these drugs, they are usually visual in nature, most often involving lights, colors, or geometric shapes, and the user is likely to understand (or have insight) into the relationship between the drug and the hallucinations.


Nitrous Oxide Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Toxic Reaction Biological Psychiatry Related Drug 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goodwin, D. W., & Guze, S. B. Psychiatric diagnosis (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Brien, C. P. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird, P. B. Molinoff, et al. (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 557–577.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crowley, T. J. Hallucinogen-related disorders. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Saddock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (6th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1995, pp. 831–838.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pechnick, R. N., & Ungerleider, J. T. Hallucinogens. In J. H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R. B. Millman, & J. G. Lan-grod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996, pp. 230–238.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Halpern, J. H. The use of hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction. In Addiction research (Vol. 4). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1996, pp. 177–189.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krebs-Thomson, R., Paulas, M. P., & Geyer, M. A. Effects of hallucinogens on locomotor and investigatory activity and patterns: Influence of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 18:339–351, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vollenweider, F. X., Vontobel, P., Hell, D., & Leenders, K. L. 5-HT modulation of dopamine release in basal ganglia in psilocybin-induced psychosis in man—A PET study with [11C]raclopride. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:424–433, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aghajanian, G. K., & Marek, G. J. Serotonin and hallucinogens, Neuropsychopharmacology 21(Suppl): 16S–23S, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kramer, H. K., Poblete, J. C., & Azmitia, E. C. Characterization of the translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/ecstasy) in synaptosomes: Evidence for a presynaptic localization involving the serotonin transporter (SERT). Neuropsychopharmacology 19:265–277, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morgan, M. J. Recreational use of “ecstasy” (MDMA) is associated with elevated impulsivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 19:252–264, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winger, G., Hofmann, F. G., & Woods, J. H. A handbook on drug and alcohol abuse (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 98–115.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strassman, R. J., Quails, C. R., & Berg, L. M. Differential tolerance to biological and subjective effects of four closely spaced doses of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. Biological Psychiatry 39:784–795, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schuckit, M. A. Educating yourself about alcohol and drugs. New York: Plenum Publishing Co., 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grob, C. S., & Poland, R. E. MDMA. In J. H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R. B. Millman, & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996, pp. 269–275.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schuckit, M. A. MDMA (ecstasy): An old drug with new tricks. Vista Hill Foundation Newsletter, 23(2), 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schlemmer, R. F., Jr., Nawara, C., Heinze, W. J., et al. Influence of environmental context on tolerance to LSD-induced behavior in primates. Biological Psychiatry 21:314–317, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    American Psychiatric Association. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown, J. K., & Malone, M. H. Some U.S. street drug identification programs. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 13:670–674, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen, R. S. Adverse symptomatology and suicide associated with the use of methylenedioxy-methamphet-amine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”). Biological Psychiatry 39:819–820, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Curran, H. V., & Travill, R. A. Mood and cognitive effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymetham phetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’): Week-end ‘high’ followed by mid-week low. Addiction 92:821–831, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vollenweider, F. X., Gamma, A., Liechti, M., & Huber, T. Psychological and cardiovascular effects and short-term sequelae of MDMA (“ecstasy”) in MDMA-naive healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 19:241–251, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peroutka, S. J. (Ed.). Ecstasy: The clinical, pharmacological, and neurotoxicological effects of the drug MDMA. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steele, T. D., McCann, U. D., & Ricaurte, G. A. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): Pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 89:539–551, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kalivas, P. W., Duffy, P., & White, S. R. MDMA elicits behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 18:469–479, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Green, A. R., Cross, A. J., & Goodwin, G. M. Review of the pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). Psychopharmacology 119:247–260, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krystal, J. H., & Price, L. H. Chronic MDMA use: Effects on mood and neuropsychological function? American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Use 18:331–341, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steele, T. D., McCann, U. D., & Ricaurte, G. A. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘Ecstasy’): Pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 59:539–551, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on drug abuse: Population estimates 1997. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975–1997, Vol. I, Secondary School Students. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cuomo, M. J., Dyment, P. G., & Gammino, V. M. Increasing use of “ecstasy” (MDMA) and other hallucinogens on a college campus. Journal of American College of Health 42:271–274, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schuster, P., Lieb, R., Lamertz, C., & Wittchen, H. U. Is the use of ecstasy and hallucinogens increasing? Results from a community study. European Addiction Research 4:75–82, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Editorial. Epidemiology of drug usage. Lancet 1:147-148, 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abruzzi, W. Drug-induced psychosis. International Journal of the Addictions 12:183–193, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bondi, M. W., Drake, A. I., & Grant, I. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 4:319–328, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Krystal, J. H., & Price, L. H. Chronic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use: Effects on mood and neuropsychological function. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 18:331–341, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kawasaki, A., & Purvin, V. Persistant palinopsia following ingestion of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Archives of Ophthalmology 114:47–50, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gouzoulis, E., Borchardt, D., & Hermle, L. A case of toxic psychosis induced by “Eve” (3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine). Archives of General Psychiatry 50:75, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hermle, L., Funfgeld, M., Oepen, G., et al. Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic effects in normal subjects: Experimental psychosis as a tool for psychiatric research. Biological Psychiatry 32:976–991, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goldstein, J. A. Niacin and acute psychedelic psychosis. Biological Psychiatry 19:272–273, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ungerleider, J. T., & Pechnick, R. N. Hallucinogens. In J. H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R. B. Millman, & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996, pp. 230–238.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lerner, A. G., Oyffe, I., Isaacs, G., & Signal, M. Protracted akathisia after risperidone withdrawal. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:437–438, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lerner, A. G., Finkel, B., Oyffe, I., et al. Clonidine treatment for hallucinogen persisting perception disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:1460, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McCann, U. D., & Ricaurte, G. A. MDMA “ecstasy” and panic disorder: Induction by a single dose. Biological Psychiatry 32:950–953, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gouzoulis, E., Steiger, A., Ensslin, M., Kovar, A., & Hermle, L. Sleep EEG effects of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDE; “Eve”) in healthy volunteers. Biological Psychiatry 32:1108–1117, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Price, L. H., Ricuarte, G. A., Krystal, J. H., & Heninger, G. R. Neuroendocrine and mood responses to intravenous L-tryptophan in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) users. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:18–22, 1989.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smith, C. G., & Asch, R. H. Drug abuse and reproduction. Fertility and Sterility 48:355–373, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Abraham, H. D., & Aldridge, A. M. Adverse consequences of lysergic acid diethylamide. Addiction 88:1327–1334, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Redfearn, P. J., Agrawal, N., & Mair, L. H. An association between the regular use of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) and excessive wear of the teeth. Addiction 93:745–748, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kokotos Leonardi, E. T., & Azmitia, E. C. MDMA (Ecstasy) inhibition of MAO type A and type B: Comparisons with fenfluramine and fluoxetine (Prozac). Neuropsychopharmacology 10:231–238, 1994.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bowen, J. S., Davis, G. B., Kearney, T. E., & Bardin, J. Diffuse vascular spasm associated with 4-bromo-2,5-dimethyoxyamphetamine ingestion. Journal of the American Medical Association 249:1477–1479, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schuckit, M. A. The kitchen condiment high: Nutmeg. Vista Hill Foundation Newsletter, 26(6), 1997.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fink, P. J., Goldman, M. J., & Lyons, I. Morning glory seed psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 15:209–213, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pfister, J. A., Stegelmeier, B. L., Cheney, C. D., et al. Operant analysis of chronic locoweed intoxication in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 74:2622–2632, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schuckit, M. A. Betel nut: A widespread drug of abuse. Vista Hill Foundation Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Newsletter, 21(1), 1992.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Talonu, N. T. Observations on betel nut use, habituation, addiction, and carcinogenesis. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal 32:195–197, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zacny, J. P., Cho, A. M., Toledano, A. Y., et al. Effects of information on the reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 48:85–95, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zacny, J. P., Klafta, J. M., Coalson, D. W., et al. The reinforcing effects of brief exposures to nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 42:197–200, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Matthew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Humphreys, D., & Lowe, J. V. Effect of nitrous oxide on cerebral blood velocity while reclining and standing. Biological Psychiatry 41:979–984, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haverkos, H. W., & Drotman, D. P. NIDA technical review: Nitrate inhalants. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 50:228–230, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schuckit, M. A. The nitrite inhalants. Vista Hill Foundation Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Newsletter, 19(10), 1990.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dax, E. M., Lange, W. R., & Jaffe, J. H. Allergic reactions to amyl nitrite inhalation. American Journal of Medicine 86:732, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brandes, J. C., Bufill, J. A., & Pisciotta, A. V. Amyl nitrite-induced hemolytic anemia. American Journal of Medicine 86:252–254, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mirvish, S. S., & Haverkos, H. W. Butyl nitrite in the induction of Kaposi’s sarcoma in AIDS. New England Journal of Medicine 317:1603, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc A. Schuckit
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California Medical School and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations