An Overview

  • Marc A. Schuckit
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


There are few issues in life for which there is universal agreement. However, politicians, insurers, employers, healthcare providers, the judiciary, the police, and, for that matter, almost everyone in the general population is likely to concur that problems associated with alcohol and drugs cost a great deal of money and cause a lot of pain. In the United States, it is estimated that the consumption of these substances and related problems cost a minimum of $71 billion per year.1,2 These figures rise to $300 billion annually when the costs of crime, the impact on mental health, and other issues are included.3


Pathological Gambling Toxic Reaction Illicit Substance Abstinence Syndrome Toxicological Screen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McCrady, B. S., & Langenbucher, J. W. Alcohol treatment and health care system reform. Archives of General Psychiatry 53:737–746, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ames, G. M., Grube, J. W., & Moore, R. S. The relationship of drinking and hangovers to workplace problems: An empirical study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 58:37–47, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rouse, B. A. Substance abuse and mental health statistic sourcebook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Falco, M. Drug abuse prevention makes a difference. Current Issues in Public Health, 2:101–105, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crits-Christoph, P., & Siqueland, L. Psychosocial treatment for drug abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry 53:749–756, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walsh, R. A. Medical education about alcohol: Review of its role and effectiveness. Alcohol and Alcoholism 30:689–702, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schuckit, M. A. Educating yourself about alcohol and drugs. New York: Plenum Publishing Co., 1998.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schuckit, M. A. Biological, psychological, and environmental predictors of the alcoholism risk: A longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 59:485–494, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kendler, K. S., & Prescott, C. A. Cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in a population-based sample of female twins. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:1016–1022, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Brien, C. P. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird, P. B. Molinoff, et al. (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 557–577.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gossop, M. Living with drugs (4th ed.). London: Wildwood House, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stunkard, A., Berkowitz, R., Tanrikut, C., et al. d-Fenfluramine treatment of binge eating disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1455–1459, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bergh, C., Eklund, T., Södersten, P., & Nordin, C. Altered dopamine function in pathological gambling. Psychological Medicine 27:473–475, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Psychiatric Association. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goodwin, D. W., & Guze, S. B. Psychiatric diagnosis (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schuckit, M. A. DSM-IV criteria for abuse and dependence: Basis for a field trial. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, H. A. Pincus, et al. (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook, Vol. 4. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1998, pp. 69–84.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedman, A. S., & Cacciola, J. Validation of the criteria for DSM diagnoses of cocaine abuse and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 24:169–177, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Psychiatric Association. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCusker, C. G., & Brown, K. Alcohol-predictive cues enhance tolerance to and precipitate “craving” for alcohol in social drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 51:494–499, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siegel, S., Hinson, R. E., & Krank, M. D. Morphine-induced attenuation of morphine tolerance. Science 212:575–576, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sdao-Jarvie, K., & Vogel-Sprott, M. Learning alcohol tolerance by mental or physical practice. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55:533–540, 1992.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schuckit, M. A., Smith, T. L., Daeppen, J. B., et al. Clinical relevance of the distinction between alcohol dependence with and without a physiological component. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:733–740, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schuckit, M. A., Daeppen, J. B., Danko, G. P., et al. Clinical implications for four drugs of the DSM-IV distinction between substance dependence with and without a physiological component. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:41–49, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowinson, J. H., Ruiz, P., Millman, R. B., & Langrod, J. (Eds.). Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    O’Brien, C. P. Progress in the science of addiction. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:1195–1197, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bloom, F. E. Neurotransmission and the central nervous system. In J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird, P. B. Molinoff, et al. (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 557–577.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Markou, A., Kosten, T. R., & Koob, G. F. Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: A self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology 18:135–174, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. Drug Addiction: bad habits add up. Nature 398:567–570, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nestler, E. J., & Aghajanian, G. K. Molecular and cellular basis of addiction. Science 278:58–63, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koob, G. F., & Le Moal, M. Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science 278:52–58, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nesse, R. M., & Berridge, K. C. Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Science 278:63–66, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Fowler, J. S., et al. Effects of methylphenidate on regional brain glucose metabolism in humans: Relationship to dopamine D2 receptors. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:50–55, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ahmed, S. H., & Koob, G. F. Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: Change in hedonic set point. Science 282:298–300, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hemmelgarn, B., Suissa, S., Huang, A., et al., Benzodiazepine use and the risk of motor vehicle crash in the elderly. Journal of the American Medical Association 278:27–31, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on drug abuse: Population estimates 1997. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975–1997, Vol. I, Secondary School Students. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bell, R., Wechsler, H., & Johnston, L. D. Correlates of college student marijuana use. Addiction 92:571–581, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Webb, E., Ashton, C. H., Kelly, P., & Kamali, F. Alcohol and drug use in UK university students. Lancet 348:922–925, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wright, J. D., & Pearl, L. Knowledge and experience of young people regarding drug misuse. British Medical Journal 310:20–24, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mora, M. E., Villatoro, J., & Rojas, E. Drug use among students in Mexico’s northern border ai]states. In The Department of Health and Human Services, Epidemiologic trends in drug abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996, pp. 367–375.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Royo-Bordonada, M. A., Cid-Ruzafa, J., Martin-Moreno, J., et al. Drug and alcohol use in Spain: Consumption habits, attitudes and opinions. Public Health 111:277–284, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., et al. Lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among urban and rural Mexican Americans in California. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:771–778, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Regier, D. A., Narrow, W. E., Rae, D. S., et al. The de facto U.S. mental and addictive disorders service system. Archives of General Psychiatry 50:85–94, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Anthony, J. C., & Heizer, J. E. Syndromes of drug abuse and dependence. In L. N. Robins & D. A. Regier (Eds.), Psychiatric disorders in America. New York: The Free Press, 1991, pp. 116–154.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kandel, D. B., & Davies, M. High school students who use crack and other drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry 53:71–80, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Myers, M. G., Stewart, D. G., & Brown, S. A. Progression from conduct disorder to antisocial personality disorder following treatment for adolescent substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:479–485, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brooke, D. Why do some doctors become addicted? Addiction 91:317–319, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Richman, J. A., Flaherty, J. A., & Rospenda, K. M. Perceived workplace harassment experiences and problem drinking among physicians: Broadening the stress/alienation paradigm. Addiction 91:391–403, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Roback, H. B., Moore, R. F., Waterhouse, G. J., & Martin, P. R. Confidentiality dilemmas in group psychotherapy with substance-dependent physicians. American Journal of Psychiatry 153:1250–1260, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Morrison, J., & Wickersham, P. Physicians disciplined by a state medical board. Journal of the American Medical Association 279:1889–1893, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Drug facts and comparisons (48th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1994.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    California Board of Pharmacy. Pharmacy law. Sacramento, CA: LawTech Publishing Co., 1998.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schuckit, M. A., Tipp, J. E., Bucholz, K. K., et al. The life-time rates of three major mood disorders and four major anxiety disorders in alcoholics and controls. Addiction 92:1289–1304, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schuckit, M. A., Tipp, J. E., Bergman, M., et al. Comparison of induced and independent major depressive disorders in 2,945 alcoholics. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:948–957, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wu, A. H., Forte, E., Casella, G., et al. CEDIA for screening drugs of abuse in urine and the effect of adulterants. Journal of Forensic Science 40:614–618, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu, R., & Goldberg, B. (Eds.). Handbook of workplace drug testing. Washington, DC: American Association of Clinical Chemists, 1995.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zwerling, C., Ryan, J., & Orav, E. J. The efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:2639–2643, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Strang, J., Black, J., Marsh, A., & Smith, B. Hair analysis for drugs: Technological break-through or ethical quagmire? Addiction 88:163–166, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McPhillips, M. A., Strang, J., & Barnes, T. R. Hair analysis: New laboratory ability to test for substance use. British Journal of Psychiatry 173:287–290, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc A. Schuckit
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California Medical School and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations