This chapter focuses on the automated determination of crystallographic orientation from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns. Early systems required an operator skilled in crystallography to manually identify features in a captured pattern in order to determine the corresponding orientation. The computer would then determine the orientation from the manually supplied data. Modern automated systems use image-processing techniques to identify the features needed to determine the crystallographic orientation from diffraction patterns without any operator intervention. This chapter describes the different procedures used in achieving automated EBSD. Image processing techniques used to enhance the diffraction patterns will be briefly described; the manual zone axis indexing technique will be discussed for historical introduction; a description of the procedure for detecting the diffraction bands with a focus on the Hough transform will be given; methods for determining orientation using diffraction bands will be detailed; issues concerning automated indexing uncertainties will be discussed; a description of the relevant structural data needed by the computer to index the patterns will be given and finally methods for calibrating a system will described. Whereas this chapter will briefly introduce alternative approaches and give some reference material where applicable, the focus will be on those techniques most familiar to the author.


Zone Axis Vote Scheme Vote Procedure Confidence Index Automate Indexing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1999, Powder Diffraction File, International Center for Diffraction Data, Newton Square.Google Scholar
  2. Biggin, S., and Dingley, D.J., 1977, A general method for locating the x-ray source point in Kossel diffraction, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 10:376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burns, J.B., Hanson, A.R., and Riseman, E.M., 1986, Extracting straight lines, IEEE Transactions On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, V, P AMI 8:425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cullity, B.D., 1956, Elements ofX-Ray Diffraction, Addison-Wesley, Reading.Google Scholar
  5. Dingley, D.J., 1988, On-line microtexture determination using backscatter Kikuchi diffraction in a scanning electron microscope, in: Proceedings oflCOTOMH, J.S. Kallend and G. Gottstein, eds., The Mineral, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale.Google Scholar
  6. Dingley, D.J., and Baba-Kishi, K., 1986, Use of electron backscatter diffraction patterns for determination of crystal symmetry elements, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 11:383.Google Scholar
  7. Field, D.P., 1997, Recent advances in the application of orientation imaging, Ultramicros copy, 67:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gottstein, G., 1988, Automatic microtexture determination with synchrotron radiation, in: Proceedings of ICOTOM8, J.S. Kallend and G. Gottstein, eds., The Mineral, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale.Google Scholar
  9. Illingworth, J., and Kittler, J., 1988, A survey of the Hough transform, Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, 44:87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Juul-Jensen, D., and Schmidt, N.-H, 1990, An automatic on-line technique for determination of crystallography by EBSP, in: Recrystallization ‘90, T.C. Chandra, ed., The Mineral, Metals, and Materials Society, Warrendale.Google Scholar
  11. Krieger Lassen, N.C., and Bilde-Sorensen, J.B., 1992, Calibration of an electron back scattering pattern set up, Journal of Microscopy, 170:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krieger Lassen, N.C., Conradsen, K., and Juul Jensen, D., 1992, Image processing procedures for analysis of electron back scattering patterns, Scanning Microscopy, 6:115.Google Scholar
  13. Krieger Lassen, N.C., 1998, A new procedure for automatic high precision measurements of the position and width of bands in backscatter Kikuchi patterns, Materials Science Forum, 273–275:201.Google Scholar
  14. Kunze, K., Wright, S.I., Adams, B.L., and Dingley, D.J., 1993, Advances in automatic EBSP single orientation measurements, Textures and Microstructures, 20:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Russ, J.C., Bright, D.S., Russ, J.C., and Hare, T.M., 1989, Application of the Hough transform to electron diffraction patterns, Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, 1:3.Google Scholar
  16. Schmidt, N.-H., and Olesen, N.O., 1989, Computer-aided determination of crystal-lattice orientation from electron-channeling patterns in the SEM, Canadian Mineralogist, 27:15.Google Scholar
  17. Schwarzer, R., and Weiland, H., 1984, On-line computerized evaluation of Kikuchi patterns for the determination of preferred orientations and orientation correlations, in: Proceedings oflCOTOM 7, J.S. Kallend and G. Gottstein, eds., Netherlands Society of Materials Science, Zwijndrecht.Google Scholar
  18. Venables, J.A., and Bin-Jaya, R., 1977, Accurate microcrystallography using electron back-scattering patterns, Philosophical Magazine, 35:1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wright, S.I., and Adams, B.L., 1992, Automatic analysis of electron backscatter diffraction patterns, Metallurgical Transactions A, 23:759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart I. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.TexSEM Laboratories (TSL)DraperUSA

Personalised recommendations