Measuring Strains Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

  • Angus J. Wilkinson


The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has undergone significant development in recent years. The technique is most widely used for crystal orientation measurement, however, it also provides a powerful tool for phase discrimination (identification) and strain analysis. This chapter reviews the application of EBSD to the analysis of local strains (plastic and elastic) in materials.


Zone Axis Strain Sensitivity Electron Backscatter Diffraction Tetragonal Distortion Pattern Quality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bowen, D.K., Tanner, B.K., 1995, A method for the accurate comparison of lattice parameters, J. Appl. Cryst. 28:753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davidson, D.L., 1984, Uses of electron channelling in studying material deformation. Int. Metals Rev. 29:75.Google Scholar
  3. Davidson, D.L., 1991, Measurement of microdisplacements by machine vision photogrammetry (DISMAP), Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62:1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dietrich, D., Bugiel, E., Osten, HJ., and Zaumseil, P., 1993, Raman investigations of elastic strain relief in Si1_xGex layers on patterned silicon substrate. J. Appl. Phys. 74: 7223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Driver, J.H., Juul Jensen, D., and Hansen, N., 1994, Large strain deformation structures in Al single crystals with rolling texture orientations, Acta Metall. 42:3105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Harker, A.H., Pinardi, K., Jain, S.C., Atkinson, A., and Bullough, R., 1995, Two-dimensional finite-element calculation of stress and strain in a stripe epilayer and substrate. Phil. Mag. A. 71:871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kinaev, N.N., Cousens, D.R., and Atrens, A., 1999, The crack tip strain field of AISI 4340: Part I: Measurement technique, J. Mater. Sci. 34:4909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kozubowski, J.A., Keller, R.R., and Gerberich, W.W., 1991, Effects of tetragonal distortion in thin epitaxic films on electron channelling patterns in scanning electron microscopy J. Appl. Cryst. 24:102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Krieger Lassen, N.C., Juul Jensen, D., and Conradsen, K., 1994. Automatic recognition of deformed and recrystallized regions of partly recrystallized samples using electron back scattering patterns. Mater. Sci. Forum. 157–162:149.Google Scholar
  10. MacKenzie, R.A.D., 1987, Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  11. Madden, M.C., and Hren, J.J., 1985, Fine structure in electron channelling, J. Microscopy. 139:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maier, HJ., Keller, R.R., Renner, H., Mughrabi, H., and Preston, A, 1996, On the unique evaluation of local lattice parameters by convergent beam electron diffraction, Phil. Mag. A. 74:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Orsund, R., Hjelen, J., and Nes, E., 1989, Local lattice curvature and deformation heterogeneities in heavily deformed aluminium, Scripta Metall. 23:1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Powell, A.R., Kubiak, R.A., Whall, T.E., Parker, E.H.C., and Bowen, D.K., 1991, Residual strain and defect analysis in as grown and annealed SiGe layers. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 220:277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prior, D J., 1999, Problems in determining the misorientation axes for small angular misorientation, using electron backscatter diffraction in the SEM. J. Microsc. 195:217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Quested, P.N., Henderson, P.J., and McLean, M., 1988, Observations of deformation and fracture heterogeneities in a nickel-base superalloy using electron back scattering patterns, Acta Metall. 36:2743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Randle, V., Hansen, N., and Juul Jensen D., 1996, The deformation behaviour of grain boundary regions in polycrystalline aluminium, Phil. Mag. A. 73:265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stone, HJ., Withers, P.J., Holden, T.M., Roberts, S.M., Reed, R.C., 1999, Comparison of three different techniques for measuring the residual stresses in an electron beam-welded plate of WASPALOY, Metall Trans. A. 30:1797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Troost, K.Z., van der Sluis, P., and Gravesteijn, D.J., 1993 Microscale elastic-strain determination by backscatter Kikuchi diffraction in the scanning electron microscope, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62:1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tucker, A.M., Wilkinson, A.J., Henderson, M.B., Ubhi, H.S., and Martin, J.W., 2000, Measurement of fatigue crack plastic zones in fine-grained materials using electron backscatter diffraction. Material Science and Technology, in press.Google Scholar
  21. Wert, J.A., Liu, Q., and Hansen, N., 1997, Dislocation boundary formation in a cold-rolled cube-oriented Al single crystal. Acta Metall. 45:2565.Google Scholar
  22. Wilkinson, A.J., 1991, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  23. Wilkinson, A.J., Relaxation modes of strained epilayers grown on patterned substrates, Proc. Int. Cong, on Electron Microsc. (Les Editions de Physique, Les Ulis 1994), 1:97.Google Scholar
  24. Wilkinson, A.J., 1996, Measurement of elastic strains and small lattice rotations using electron back scatter diffraction. Ultramicroscopy. 62:237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wilkinson, A.J., 1997, Methods for determining elastic strains from electron back scatter diffraction and electron channelling patterns. Mater. Sei. Tech. 13:79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wilkinson, A J., and Dingley, D.J., 1991, Quantitative deformation studies using electron back scatter patterns, Acta Metall Mater. 39:3047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wilkinson, A.J., Measurement of small misorientations using electron back scatter diffraction. Proc. Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conf., Inst. Phys. Conf. Series. No. 161:115.Google Scholar
  28. Yamaguchi, M., Tachikawa, M., Sugo, M., Kondo, S., and Itoh, Y., 1990, Analysis for dislocation density reduction in selective area grown GaAs films on Si substrates. Appl. Phys. Lett. 56:27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Young, R. J., 1997, Analysis of composites using Raman and fluorescence microscopy — a review, J. Microsc. 185:199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angus J. Wilkinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MaterialsUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations