Characterization of Deformed Microstructures

  • David P. Field
  • Hasso Weiland


Over the past two decades or so, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has become an increasingly important analytical technique in characterizing polycrystalline microstructures. As this tool was championed by the texture analysis community in the early stages of its application to materials research, characterization of deformed materials has been a significant fraction of the EBSD applications research published in the open literature. This chapter focuses on the application of EBSD to the characterization of deformed materials.


Pole Figure Friction Stir Welding Misorientation Angle Dislocation Cell Orientation Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, B.L., Morris, P.R., Wang, T.T., Willden, K.S., and Wright, S.I., 1987, Description of orientation coherence in polycrystalline materials, Acta metall 35:2935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, B.L., Wright, S.I., and Kunze, K. 1993, Orientation imaging: The emergence of a new microscopy, Metall. Trans. 24A:819.Google Scholar
  3. Baggethun, P., 1998, Ph.D. thesis, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, R., and Panchanadeeswaran, S., 1995, Effects of grain interactions on deformation and local texture in polycrystals, Acta metall, mater. 43:2701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Field, D.P., and Adams, B.L., 1990, Unrecoverable strain hardening in torsionally strained OFHC copper, J. Eng. Mails. Tech. 112:315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Field, D.P., and Weiland, H., 1994, The Dependence of dislocation density and cell size on crystallographic orientation in aluminum, Mails. Sci. Forum. 157–162:1181.Google Scholar
  7. Hansen, N., Juul Jensen, D., Huang, X., and Bunsch, A., 1996, Deformation induced changes in microstructure, local orientation and bulk texture, in: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Textures of Materials, International Academic Publishers, Beijing: 1331.Google Scholar
  8. Harland, C.J., Akhter, P. and Venables, J.A., 1981, Accurate microcrystallography in the SEM. J. Phys. E. 14:175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hjelen, J., Weiland, H., Butler, J., Liu, J., Hu, H., and Nes, E., 1991, The orientation distribution in channel die compressed Al single crystals as studied by micro-diffraction techniques in SEM and TEM, Textures and Microstructures. 14–18:983.Google Scholar
  10. Hughes, D.A., 1997, The effect of dislocation microstructures and grain subdivision on crystal plasticity, in: Prodeedings of Plasticity ‘97: The Sixth International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, Neat Press, Fulton, Maryland: 253–254.Google Scholar
  11. Humphreys, F.J. and Brough, I., 1999, High resolution EBSD with a FEGSEM, J. Microscopy. In Press.Google Scholar
  12. Isabell, T.C., and Dravid, V.P., 1997, Resolution and sensitivity of electron backscattered diffraction in a cold field emission gun SEM, Ultramicroscopy. 67:59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krieger-Lassen, N.C., Conradsen, K., and Juul-Jensen, D., 1992, Image processing procedures for analysis of electron back scattering patterns, Scanning Microse. 6:115.Google Scholar
  14. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, D. 1985, Theory of workhardening 1934–1984, Metall. Trans. 16A:2091.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, D.N., 1999, Private Communication.Google Scholar
  16. Lee, P.S., Rollett, A.D., and Adams, B.L., 1999, Development and application of a disorientation correlation functión, in: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Textures of Materials, J.A. Szpunar, ed., NRC Research Press, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  17. Murr, L.E., Liu, J., and McClure, J.C., 1998. A TEM study of precipitation and related microstructures in friction stir welded 6061 aluminum, Journal of Materials Science. 33:1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nye, J.F., 1953, Some geometrical relations in dislocated crystals, Acta metali. 1:153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Raj, S.V., and Pharr, G.M., 1986, A compilation and analysis of data for the stress dependence of the subgrain size, Mat. Sci. Eng. 81:217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Segal, V.M., 1981, Plastic working of metals by simple shear, Russ. Metall. (English translation). 1:99.Google Scholar
  21. Sun, S., Adams, B.L., and King, W.E., 2000, Observation of lattice curvature near the interface of a deformed aluminium bi-crystal, Phil. Mag. A. 80:9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Taylor, G.I., 1934, Plastic strain in metals, Proc. Roy. Soc. A145:362.Google Scholar
  23. Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C., Murch, M.G., Temple-Smith, P., and Dawes, C.J., 1993, Improvements relating to friction welding (friction stir welding and friction plunge welding), The Welding Institute, PCT World Patent Application WO 93/10935. Published 10 June.Google Scholar
  24. Troost, K.Z., 1993, Submicron crystallography in the scanning electron microscope. Philips J. Res. 47:151.Google Scholar
  25. Troost, K.Z., Slangen, M.H.J., and Gerritsen, E., 1994, Microtexture determination of as-drawn tungsten wires by backscatter Kikuchi diffraction in the scanning electron microscope, Materials Science Forum. 157–162:1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Umezawa, O., and Nagai, K., 1998, Deformation structure and subsurface fatigue crack generation in austenitic steels at low temperature, Metall. Mater. Trans. 29A:809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Valiev, R.Z., Krasilnikov, N.A., and Tsenev, N.K., 1991, Mater. Sci. Eng. A137:35.Google Scholar
  28. Venables, J.A., and Harland, C.J., 1973, Electron back-scattering patterns—A new technique for obtaining crystallographic information in the scanning electron microscope, Philos. Mag. 27:1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiland, H., Rouns, T.N., and Liu, J., 1994, The role of particle stimulated nucleation during recrystallization of an aluminum-manganese alloy, Z. Metallkunde. 85:592.Google Scholar
  30. Weiland, H., and Field, D.P., 1994, Automatic analysis of Kikuchi diffraction patterns. Proc. Electron Microscopy Soc. Amer. 42:900.Google Scholar
  31. Wilkinson, A.J., and Dingley, D.J., 1991, Quantitative deformation studies using electron back scatter patterns, Acta metali, mater. 39:3047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Woodfield, A.P., Gorman, M.D., Corderman, R.R., Sutliff, J.A., and Yamrom, B., 1995, Effect of microstructure on dwell fatigue behavior of Ti-6242, Titanium ‘95: Science and Technology, Volume II, The Institute of Materials, London: 1116.Google Scholar
  33. Wright, S.I., 1993, A review of automated orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), J. Computer-Assisted Microscopy. 5:207.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David P. Field
    • 1
  • Hasso Weiland
    • 2
  1. 1.TexSEM Laboratories (TSL)DraperUSA
  2. 2.Alcoa Technical CenterAlcoa CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations