The Development of Automated Diffraction in Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy

  • David J. Dingley


This introductory chapter traces the development of the automated detection and indexing of electron diffraction patterns in both the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Though electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is the best known of these, the procedures have been extended recently to the transmission electron microscope and a review would not be complete without including this new work.

From 1973 to 1983, there were only two groups active in electron backscatter diffraction—those at Sussex and Bristol Universities. A third group at Oxford University was heavily involved with the associated technique of electron channeling. Toward the end of the decade three further groups had joined the fray—those at Yale and Clausthal Universities and at Riso Laboratory in Denmark. There were, in addition, several industrial laboratories using a very early-commercialized version of EBSD. Full automation of EBSD in 1991 led to the mapping of crystal orientation over a sample surface and to a new metallography, termed “Orientation Imaging Microscopy” by Adams et al., (1993). It was this innovation that gave rise to the current rapid growth of the technique and to its full commercialization. For microstructures at the nanoscale level, a new round of experimentation was begun in 1996 to explore methods for crystallographic mapping in the TEM. The work of each of these critical periods is covered in this review.


Electron Backscatter Diffraction Charge Couple Device Camera Orientation Image Microscopy EBSD Pattern Kikuchi Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Dingley
    • 1
  1. 1.TexSem Laboratories (TSL)DraperUSA

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