Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Cysts using Ultrasound

  • Enrico Papini
  • Claudio M. Pacella


Ultrasound (US) evaluation of the thyroid gland and US-guided fine needle-aspiration biopsy (FNA) of thyroid lesions have become the natural diagnostic complement of physical examination in endocrinological practice. The safety and ease of FNA have led to the attempt to change this diagnostic technique into an office-based, low-cost, nonsurgical procedure for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. On the basis of experience in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (1) and of parathyroid tumors (2–4), US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was first proposed in 1990 as a possible therapy for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) (5). Since then, several reports have confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of PEI in the treatment of AFTN (6–13), of cystic thyroid nodules (14–17) and of benign cold thyroid nodules (18–22).


Thyroid Nodule Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Benign Thyroid Nodule Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy Cystic Thyroid 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Papini
    • 1
  • Claudio M. Pacella
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EndocrineMetabolic and Digestive DiseasesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic ImagingOspedale Regina Apostolorum AlbanoRomeItaly

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