Low Power Circuits for RF-Frequency Synthesizers in the Low GHz Range

  • Dirk Pfaff
  • Qiuting Huang

Abstract

The voltage controlled oscillator and the prescaler are building blocks which dominate power consumption of RF frequency synthesizers. This paper explores the low power aspects of CMOS VCO and prescaler design. Different resonator circuits are analyzed and compared. Measurement results on a 1GHz oscillator, a quadrature signal generator, and a dual modulus prescaler, all with very low power consumption, are presented.

Keywords

Quality Factor Phase Noise Voltage Control Oscillator Microstrip Line Solid State Circuit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    When less is more, Mobile Europe, Vol. 7, No. 2, February 1997Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Rudell et al., A 1.9-GHz Wide-Band IF Double Conversion CMOS Receiver for Cordless Telephone Applications, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 32, Dec. 1997, pp. 2071–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Roufougaran, G. Chang, J. Rael et al., A Single-Chip 900MHz Spread- Spectrum Wireless Transceiver in 1mm CMOS, Part I-II, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 33, April 1998, pp. 515–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    T. Stetzler et al, A 2.7–4.5V single chip GSM transceiver RF integrated circuit, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 30, pp. 1421–1429Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. Marshall et al, A 2.7V GSM transceiver IC with on-chip filtering, IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, Feb. 1995, pp. 148–149Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    P. Orsatti, F. Piazza, Q. Huang, A 20mA-Receive, 55mA-Transmit, Single- Chip GSM Transceiver in 0.25\im CMOS, IEEE. J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 34, No. 12, December 1999Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. Pederson and K. Mayaram, Analog Integrated Circuits for Communications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Q. Huang, Power Consumption vs. LO Amplitude for CMOS Colpitts Oscillators, Proc. CICC 1997, pp. 255–258Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Q. Huang, F. Piazza, P. Orsatti, T. Ohguro, The Impact of Scaling Down to Deep Submicron on CMOS RF Circuits, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 7, July 1998Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    C. Patrick, S. Wong, On-Chip Spiral Inductors with Patterned Ground Shields for Si-Based RF IC’s, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1998Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    B. Park, P. Allen, A 1GHz, Low -Phase-Noise CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with Integrated LC VCO For Wireless Communications, Proc. of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference 1998, pp. 567–570Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Craninckx, M. Steyaert, H. Miyakawa, A Fully Integrated Spiral-LC CMOS VCO Set with Prescaler for GSM and DCS-1800 Systems, Proc. of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference 1997, pp. 403–406Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    T. Soorapanath, et al., Analysis and Optimization of Accumulation-Mode Varactor for RF ICs, Digest of VLSI Symposium, 1998, pp. 32–33Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Lo, C. Olgaard, D. Rose, A 1.8V/3.5mA LlGHz/300MHz CMOS Dual PLL Frequency Synthesizer ICfor RF Communications, Proc. of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference 1998, pp. 571–574Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. Tham et al., A 2.7V 900MHz/1.9GHz Dual-Band Transceiver ICfor Digital Wireless Communication, Proc. of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference 1998, pp. 559–562Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Datasheet, Chip Inductors 0805HQ Series, Coilcraft Inc.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Datasheet, Hyperabrupt Tuning Varactors SMV1232–37, Alpha IndustriesGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Datasheet, R04000 Series High Frequency Circuits Materials, Rogers microwave products, 1998Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Gopinath, Maximum Q-Factors ofMicrostrip Resonators, IEEE T. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 29, No. 2, February 1981Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. James, A. Henderson, High-frequency behavior in microstrip open-circuit termination, IEE J. on Microwaves, Optics and Acoustics, Vol 3, No. 5, 1979Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    T. Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley, 1992Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    H. Cong et al., Multigigahertz CMOS Dual-Modulus Prescaler 1C, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 23, 1988, Oct. 1988, pp. 1189–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. Craninckx, M. Steyaert, A 1.75-GHz/3VDual-Modulus Divide-by-128/ 129 Prescaler in 0.7mm CMOS, IEEE J. of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 31, July 1996, pp. 890–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Motorola Semiconductor Data Sheet MCI2053A, 1997Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Pfaff
    • 1
  • Qiuting Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Integrated Systems LaboratorySwiss Federal Institute of Technology ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations