Bioelectricity pp 217-243 | Cite as

Extracellular Fields

  • Robert Plonsey
  • Roger C. Barr


We have discussed the generation of local circuit currents as a consequence of membrane activation and the role these currents play in impulse propagation. Because such currents flow into the extracellular medium, they may be detected with extracellular electrodes and even body surface electrodes. The electrocardiogram is a familiar such example: the sources of these body surface potentials are the combined action currents of many cardiac cells.


Volume Conductor Dipole Source Field Point Source Density Dipole Strength 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Plonsey
    • 1
  • Roger C. Barr
    • 1
  1. 1.Edmund T. Pratt Jr., School of EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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