Synchronization and Total Deadlock
Most multiprograms are designed with the aim of having the components cooperate on a common task. The common task may vary from a large-scale computation divided over the various components to an orderly scheduling of the access of components to scarce common resources. Almost all applications will require information exchange — communication — between components, and almost always will the need arise for tuning the relative speeds — i.e. for synchronization — of the components. Indeed, a component that is about to perform an addition, might have to be delayed until the addends have arrived, and a component that is about to need a printer, might have to “wait” if no printer is free.
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