Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Endoscopic Transaxillary First Rib Resection and Thoracodorsal Sympathectomy for Causalgia

  • Bernardo D. Martinez


Thoracic outlet syndrome is a condition related to compression of the subclavian axillary vein, artery, and brachial plexus due to significant congenital anomalies of the scalenus muscle insertion at the first rib. In situations associated with trauma or occupational demand on the upper extremity, the functional relationship between these neurovascular structures, scalenus muscles, and the first rib appear to be altered.


Brachial Plexus Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic Ganglion Color Plate 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernardo D. Martinez

There are no affiliations available

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