• Leland Wilkinson
Part of the Statistics and Computing book series (SCO)


The word data is the plural of the Latin datum, meaning a given, or that which we take for granted and use as the basis of our calculations. This meaning is carried in the French word for statistical data, données. We ordinarily think of data as derived from measurements from a machine, survey, census, test, rating, or questionnaire — most frequently numerical. In a more general sense, however, data are symbolic representations of observations or thoughts about the world. As we have seen, we do not need to begin with numerals to create a graphic. Text strings, symbols, shapes, pictures, graphs themselves, can all be graphed.


Geographic Information System Data Cube Military Expenditure Graphical Object Retinal Cell Ganglion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leland Wilkinson
    • 1
  1. 1.SPSS Inc.ChicagoUSA

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