The beauty and regularity of crystals impressed people to such an extent that in the past crystals were regarded as products of nature with mysterious properties. Scientific investigation of crystals started in 1669, when Nicolaus Steno, a Dane working as a court physician in Tuscan, proposed, that during crystal growth the angles between the faces remained constant.


Asymmetric Unit Protein Crystal Inversion Center Symmetry Operation Symmetry Element 
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  1. 1.
    Vectors are in boldface type.Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    The Program DENZO defines mosaicity as “The rocking angle in degrees, in both the vertical and the horizontal directions which would generate all the spots seen on a still diffraction photograph. It includes contributions due to Xray bandwith, beam crossfire, etc.” (Gewirth, 1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Drenth
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biophysical ChemistryGroningenThe Netherlands

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