Cloacal Exstrophy

Experience with 41 Cases from 1976–1997
  • W. Hardy Hendren
  • Robert E. Gross
  • Dennis P. Lund


Cloacal exstrophy is one of the most formidable challenges in the field of pediatric surgery. It is said to occur with an incidence of 1 in 200,000,1 to 1 in 400,000 live births.2 Thus, in the United States with a birth rate of about 3 million per year, there should be at most only 1 to 2 dozen such babies who are live born each year. It would seem prudent, therefore, that the treatment of these complex problems be directed to a limited number of centers where there are surgeons with special interest in caring for these relatively rare problems.


Bladder Neck Urinary Continence Imperforate Anus Pelvic Kidney Cloacal Exstrophy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Hardy Hendren
    • 1
  • Robert E. Gross
    • 2
  • Dennis P. Lund
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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