Indications and Types of Bladder Augmentation in Cloacal Exstrophy

  • Michael E. Mitchell


Cloacal exstrophy is the most severe form of the bladder exstrophy complex. It represents the greatest challenge because not only is the bladder, bladder neck, urethra, and genitalia involved with this deformity and malformation, but the intestine may be severely shortened and innervation to the bladder and bladder neck area may be abnormal because of spinal malformation (present in greater than 75% of these patients). Therefore, reconstruction for urinary continence is a major challenge.

Stomach or a combination of stomach with small bowel may be ideal for bladder reconstruction in these patients. Large bowel or hindgut should not be used for the bladder. The advantage of stomach is that it has a structure similar to normal bladder, thus facilitating ureteral reimplantation or tunnels for continence.


Small Bowel Bladder Neck Primary Closure Intermittent Catheterization Urinary Continence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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    Mitchell, M.E., Brito, C.G. and Rink, R.C.: Cloacal exstrophy reconstruction for Urinary Continence. J. Urol., 144: 554, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Sumfest, J.M., Burns, M.W. and Mitchell, M.E.: The Mitrofanoff principle in urinary reconstruction. J. Urol., 150: 1875, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Mitchell
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital and Medical CenterSeattleUSA

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