Anatomy of Cloacal Exstrophy

The Surgical Implications
  • Douglas A. Husmann
  • David R. Vandersteen


Cloacal exstrophy with an estimated incidence of 1 in 200–400,000, is the rarest and most severe form of the exstrophy epispadias complex.1,2 Prior to 1960 the multiple systemic defects found in association with this anomaly inevitably lead to death of the infant.3,4 Refinements in surgical technology, neonatal care, hyperalimentation and antibiotic therapy currently allow us to obtain survival rates in the range of 85–90%.1,5 To appropriately plan for the surgical reconstruction of these patients, the pediatric urologist, surgeon and radiologist managing these individuals must beware of the multiple anomalies that coexist with this entity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the associated congenital defects and review their impact on the surgical treatment and management of this patient population.


Tethered Cord Urinary Continence Imperforate Anus Cloacal Exstrophy Gender Reassignment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas A. Husmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • David R. Vandersteen
    • 1
  1. 1.The Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Urology, E 17 BThe Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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