Psychological Aspects of Bladder Exstrophy

Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Protective Factors from a Longitudinal Perspective
  • William G. Reiner


The dramatic transformation in the medical-surgical approaches to bladder exstrophy in the last three decades as well as in the results for exstrophy patients has not been legitimized by ongoing and concomitant studies of the psychological ramifications or patient adaptation. Such data that has been published is hampered by patient selection bias and an absence of longitudinal and systematic research. Because of recurrent anecdotal observations of psychological distress and problems with social adaptation in exstrophy patients, we initiated a set of longitudinal studies at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1993 looking at the psychosocial and psychosexual development in exstrophy patients and the implications for patients and family alike.


Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Urologist Bladder Exstrophy Patient Selection Bias Cloacal Exstrophy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Reiner
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryJohns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA

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