Review of Long-Term Results of Staged Functional Reconstruction and Bladder Neck Plasty in Bladder Exstrophy Patients Followed from Birth at the Johns Hopkins Hospital

  • Yegappan Lakshmanan
  • John P. Gearhart
  • Robert D. Jeffs


Bladder neck plasty, which is the planned third stage in staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy grew out of the earlier contributions to incontinence surgery by Hugh Hampton Young, John Dees, Guy Leadbetter and Victor Marshall. Early attempts at reconstruction of classical bladder exstrophy were often dismal failures leading to the statement in the reigning pediatric urology text by Campbell1 in 1951 to say that all exstrophies should be diverted to the skin or the bowel as their best means of management.


Bladder Neck Johns Hopkins Hospital Continence Rate Bladder Exstrophy Urethral Plate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yegappan Lakshmanan
    • 1
  • John P. Gearhart
    • 1
  • Robert D. Jeffs
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Division of Pediatric UrologyThe Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Marburg 1, James Buchanan Brady Urological InstituteThe Johns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA

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