The Embryology and Epidemiology of Bladder Exstrophy

  • Bruce Slaughenhoupt


In 1987, the International Clearing House for Birth Defects estimated that classic bladder exstrophy occurred at a rate of 1 in 30,000 live births.1 In a more recent study published in 1994, the University of Pittsburgh estimated classic bladder exstrophy to occur once in 25,000 live births in the Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. areas.2 The University Hospital in Lund, Sweden recently cited an incidence of 1 in 33,500 live births.3


Abdominal Wall Inguinal Hernia Bladder Outlet Obstruction Bladder Exstrophy Urethral Plate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce Slaughenhoupt
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of UrologyUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA

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