Control of Purposive Saccadic Eye Movements and Visual Fixation in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Douglas P. Munoz
  • Karen A. Hampton
  • Kim D. Moore
  • Jenny E. Goldring
Chapter

Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling disease affecting approximately 5% of children (Barkley 1990; Silver 1992). ADHD is characterized by the symptoms of impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention and these core symptoms persist into adulthood. The diagnosis of ADHD remains difficult because it usually involves the subjective evaluation of a child’s behavior by parents, teachers, and physicians. At present, the etiology of ADHD remains unknown. A frontostriatal deficit as been hypothesized for the following reasons. First, ADHD subjects lack inhibitory control and often act impulsively (Chelune et al. 1986; Grodzinsky and Diamond 1992), which is similar to other frontal lobe disorders. Second, regional blood flow and glucose metabolic studies have revealed frontal and/or striatal abnormalities in ADHD subjects (Lou et al. 1984, 1989; Zametkin et al. 1990). Third, neuroimaging studies have shown altered architecture in the frontal lobes, caudate nucleus and rostrum of the corpus callosum (Giedd et al. 1994; Castellanos et al. 1996a). A dopamine disorder has also been proposed (Levy 1991) for the following reasons. First, the action of methylphenidate, the main pharmacotherapy for ADHD, is to block dopamine reuptake. Second, there is evidence for abnormal levels of catecholamine metabolites in the CSF of ADHD subjects (Castellanos et al. 1996b).

Keywords

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Direction Error Visual Fixation Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Child Saccadic Reaction Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bala SP, Cohen B, Morris AG, Atkin A, Gittelman R, Kates W (1981) Saccades of hyperactive and normal boys during ocular pursuit. Develop Med Child Neurol 23: 323–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barkley RA (1990) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. Guildford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Biscaldi M, Fischer B, Stuhr V (1996) Human express-saccade makers are impaired at suppressing visually-evoked saccades. J Neurophsyiol 76: 199–214.Google Scholar
  4. Bylsma FW, Pivik RT (1989) The effects of background illumination and stimulant medication on smooth pursuit eye movements of hyperactive children. J Abnormal Child Psych 17: 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Vauss YC, Snell JW, Rajapakse JC, Rapoport JL (1996a) Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 607–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castellanos FX, Elia J, Kruesi MJP, Marsh WL, Gulotta CS, Potter, WZ, Ritchie GF, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL (1996b) Cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid predicts behavioral response to stimulants in 45 boys with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharm 14: 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chelune GJ, Ferguson W, Koon R, Dickey TO (1986) Frontal lobe disinhibition in attention deficit disorder. Child Psychiat Human Dev 16: 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dorris MC, Paré M, Munoz DP (1997) Neuronal activity in monkey superior colliculus related to the initiation of saccadic eye movements. J Neurosci 17: 8566–8579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fischer B, Weber H (1992) Characteristics of “anti” saccades in man. Exp Brain Res 89: 415–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fischer B, Weber H (1993) Express saccades and visual attention. Behav Brain Sci 16: 553–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fischer B, Weber H, Biscaldi M, Aiple F, Otto P, Stuhr V (1993) Separate populations of visually guided saccades in humans: reaction times and amplitudes. Exp Brain Res 92: 528–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Casey BJ, Kozuch P, King AC, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL (1994) Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 151: 665–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grodzinsky GM, Diamond R (1992) Frontal lobe functioning in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dev Neuropsych 8: 427–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guitton D, Buchtel H, Douglas R (1985) Frontal lobe lesions in man cause difficulties in suppressing reflexive saccades and in generating goal-directed saccades Exp Brain Res 58: 455–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hallett P (1978) Primary and secondary sacades to goals defined by instructions. Vision Res 18: 1279–1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leigh RJ, Zee DS (1991) The neurology of eye movements. FA Davis, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  17. Levy F (1991) The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Australian NZ J Psychiatry 25: 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lou HC, Henriksen L, Bruhn P (1984) Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Arch Neurol 41: 825–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lou HC, Henriksen L, Bruhn P, Borner H, Nielsen JB (1989) Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Arch Neurol 46: 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Munoz DP, Corneil BD (1995) Evidence for interactions between target selection and visual fixation for saccade generation in humans. Exp Brain Res 103: 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Munoz DP, Wurtz RH (1992) Role of the rostral superior colliculus in active visual fixation and execution of express saccades. J Neurophysiol 67: 1000–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Paré M, Munoz DP (1996) Saccadic reaction time in the monkey: advanced preparation of oculomotor programs is primarily responsible for express saccade occurrence. J Neurophysiol 76: 3666–3681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Paus T (1992) Impaired voluntary suppression of reflexive saccades in attention-deficit hyperactivity disordered boys. Thalamus 8: 1–23.Google Scholar
  24. Ross RG, Hommer D, Breiger D, Varley C, Radant A (1994) Eye movement task related to frontal lobe functioning in children with attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33: 869–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rothlind JC, Posner MI, Schaughency EA (1991) Lateralized control of eye movements in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Cog Neurosci 3: 377–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saslow MG (1967) Effects of component displacement-step stimuli upon latency of saccadic eye movements J Opt Soc Am 57: 1024–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shapira YA, Jones MH, Sherman SP (1980) Abnormal eye movements in hyperkinetic children with learning disability. Neuropadiatrie 11: 36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silver LB (1992) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment. American Psychiatric Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  29. Wurtz RH, Goldberg ME (1989) The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  30. Zametkin AJ, Nordahl TE, Gross M, King C, Semple WE, Rumset J, Hamburger S, Cohen RM (1990) Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. N Engl J Med 323: 1361–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas P. Munoz
    • 1
  • Karen A. Hampton
    • 1
  • Kim D. Moore
    • 1
  • Jenny E. Goldring
    • 1
  1. 1.MRC Group in Sensory-Motor Neuroscience, Department of PhysiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations