Listing’s Plane Orientation with Vergence

Effect of Disparity and Accommodation
  • Z. Kapoula
  • M. Bernotas
  • T. Haslwanter


According to Listing’s law, all eye positions can be reached from the reference position by rotations about axes which lie in a plane, provided the head is stationary (Helm-holtz 1867; Ruete 1853). It is known that when the eyes converge upon proximal targets Listing’s law still holds but Listing’s plane rotates temporally. This causes elevation-dependent torsion: the eyes intort for up proximal gaze and extort for down proximal gaze (Mikhael et al. 1995; Minken and Van Gisbergen 1994; Mok et al. 1992; Van Rijn and Van den Berg 1993). In the following, we will call the tilt of Listing’s plane as a function of vergence Listings Plane Vergence Tilt (LPVT). The functional significance of the LPVT is not clear. In his comprehensive study, Tweed (1997) gives several possible interpretations. A first hypothesis would be that LPVT is a strategy for motor efficiency, allowing to keep the eyes in an eccentric position with minimal effort. A second hypothesis associates that tilt with a functional role for binocular vision, e.g. to obtain binocular single vision of lines orthogonal to Listing’s plane or, more likely, to reduce the cyclodisparities of the visual planes themselves. A third hypothesis states that it might be both a strategy for motor efficiency as well as a strategy subserving binocular visual function.


Binocular Vision Temporal Rotation Binocular Disparity Search Coil Midsagittal Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Kapoula
    • 1
  • M. Bernotas
    • 2
  • T. Haslwanter
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l’ActionCNRS-College de France UMR 9950ParisFrance
  2. 2.Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of SiauliaiSiauliaiLithuania
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital TübingenTübingenGermany

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