Listing’s Plane Orientation with Vergence
According to Listing’s law, all eye positions can be reached from the reference position by rotations about axes which lie in a plane, provided the head is stationary (Helm-holtz 1867; Ruete 1853). It is known that when the eyes converge upon proximal targets Listing’s law still holds but Listing’s plane rotates temporally. This causes elevation-dependent torsion: the eyes intort for up proximal gaze and extort for down proximal gaze (Mikhael et al. 1995; Minken and Van Gisbergen 1994; Mok et al. 1992; Van Rijn and Van den Berg 1993). In the following, we will call the tilt of Listing’s plane as a function of vergence Listings Plane Vergence Tilt (LPVT). The functional significance of the LPVT is not clear. In his comprehensive study, Tweed (1997) gives several possible interpretations. A first hypothesis would be that LPVT is a strategy for motor efficiency, allowing to keep the eyes in an eccentric position with minimal effort. A second hypothesis associates that tilt with a functional role for binocular vision, e.g. to obtain binocular single vision of lines orthogonal to Listing’s plane or, more likely, to reduce the cyclodisparities of the visual planes themselves. A third hypothesis states that it might be both a strategy for motor efficiency as well as a strategy subserving binocular visual function.
KeywordsBinocular Vision Temporal Rotation Binocular Disparity Search Coil Midsagittal Plane
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Helmholtz H (1867). Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik. Leipzig: Voss. English translation: Helmholtz’ treatise on physiological optics. New York: Dover (1962).Google Scholar
- Ruete CGT (1853) Lehrbuch der Ophthalmologic Braunschweig:36–37.Google Scholar
- Semmlow JL, Hung G (1983). The near response. Theories of control. In Vergence eye movements: Basic and clinical aspects (ed. C. Schor and K. Ciuffreda), pp. 175–195, Boston, Butterworths.Google Scholar
- Von Noorden GK (1990) Binocular vision and ocular motility. Theory and management of strabismus (4th edn.) St Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar