Visualization Techniques for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

  • Michael J. Mack
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


The last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the practice of surgery with the application of minimally invasive techniques to everyday clinical practice. With the use of these techniques in general surgery, gynecology, orthopedics, and thoracic surgery, “minimally invasive” became synonymous with “minimal access.” Naturally the parallel development of visual-imaging technology to replace direct vision was necessary to overcome the limitations of small incisions. But rather than technology filling a void, video imaging actually created and catalyzed the field of minimally invasive surgery.


Patent Ductus Arteriosus Coronary Bypass Grafting Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Invasive Cardiac Surgery Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Mack

There are no affiliations available

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