The development of microbial biofilms on medical prostheses

  • Gregor Reid


Each year in many countries around the world more and more medical prostheses are used in clinical practice and in the management of body functions (Reid, 1994). For example, in the specialty of urology alone, devices such as incontinence pads, catheters, ureteral stents, drainage lines, penile prostheses, prostatic stents and combinations with tissues such as bowel for bladder replacement are used in patient care (Light, Lapin and Vohra, 1995; Reid et al., 1995b; Reid, Tieszer and Bailey, 1995; Herschorn and Ordorica, 1995; Wilson and Delk, 1995). The enormity of the field is illustrated by the fact that over 25 million surgical procedures carried out in the USA alone each year, require the permanent or temporary use of biomaterials. Many examples of biofilm-associated infections on medical devices can be found, such as those in central venous catheters (Kowalewska-Grochowska et al.,1991; Elliott and Faroqui, 1992), a total artificial heart (Jarvik, 1981), contact lenses and intraocular devices (Elder et al., 1995), voice prostheses (Neu et al.,1992) as well as a vast number of prosthetic implants, reviewed in full elsewhere (Dankert, Hogt and Feijen, 1986).


Urinary Catheter Bacterial Adhesion Ureteral Stents Plasmid Transfer Penile Prosthesis 
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  • Gregor Reid

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