Homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys

  • Terry Sheppard
Chapter

Abstract

The object of this chapter is to consider the conditions required for practical homogenization and its effect on extrusion processing parameters and, where appropriate, investigate how property development is influenced by homogenization. The examples are drawn from more recent work for aluminium alloys in each of the alloy series. In sections 5.1–5.8 we shall, in the main, discuss metallurgy and the homogenization requirements leaving the extrusion considerations for discussion under the heading of ‘limit diagrams’. It is normal to relate alloy extrusion to maximum extrudate speeds but the reader will be aware from the discussion on shape considerations in Chapter 4 that it is, in general, meaningless to suggest a maximum speed without taking into account the extrusion ratio, the shape factor, metallurgical factors (i.e. the retention of the press effect in 6XXX alloys or the structural factors required to produce acceptable fracture toughness in 2XXX or 7XXX alloys) and geometrical specifications of the product. Therefore we shall show these effects by means of limit diagrams and, at the conclusion of that consideration, will be able to grade the alloys in terms of extrudability.

Keywords

Homogenization Temperature Homogenization Treatment Extrusion Ratio Extrusion Temperature Cube Texture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Richards, T.L. (1959/60) J. Inst. Met.,88 141.Google Scholar
  2. Thorley, R.T. and Tucker, G.E.C. (1957/8) J. Inst. Met.,86 353.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Usui, E., Inaba, T. and Shinano, N. (1985) Z. Metallkd., 76 (2), 786.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Usai, E., Inaba, T. and Shinano, N. (1986). Z. Metallkd., 77, 179.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Usai, E., Inaba, T. and Shinano, N. (1986) Z. Metallkd., 77, 684.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sheppard, T. and Paterson, S.J. (1982) Met. Tech., 9, 389–398.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paterson, S.J. and Sheppard, T. (1982) Met. Tech., 9, 274–281.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vierod, R.P. and Sheppard, T. (1985) Mat. Sci. Tech., 1, 321.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sheppard, T. (1996) Proc. 6th Int. Al. Ext. Techn. Seminar, Chicago, May, 163–171. Aluminium Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fukada, K., Mizouchi, M. and Kajiyama, T. (1986) in Aluminum Physical and Mechanical,EMAS 483. Japan Light Metal Society.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oscarsson, A., Hutchinson, B. and Karlsson, A. (1987) Proc. 8th Light Metals Congress, Leoben-Vienna. Aluminium Verlag, Dusseldorf.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karlsson, A., Oscarsson, A., Lehtinen B. and Hutchinson, W.B. (1988) Homogenisation and Annealing of Aluminium and Copper Alloys, The Metallurgical Society, AIME, Warrendale, PA, 245.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kitao, Y., Usai, E. and Inaba, T. (1982) Kobe Res. Dev., 32 (2), 27.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Celliers, O.C., Musulin, I. and Rogers, S.J. (1991) Proc. 5th International Extrusion Technology Seminar, Chicago, May, 551. Aluminium Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sanders, T.H. Jr. (1981) Metallography, 14, 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ueki, M., Horie, S. and Nakamura, T. (1979) J. Mech. Work. Tech., 3, 51.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, S.L. and Wu, S.T. (1986) Met. Trans. A, 17A, 8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee, S.L. and Wu, S.T. (1987) Met. Trans. A, 18A, 1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zaidi, M.A. and Sheppard, T. (1984) Met. Tech., 11, 313.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sultan, M.M. (1985) Proc. Conf. 4th International Congr. on Heat Treatment Mats., 1458. The Metallurgical Society, AIME, Warrendale, PA.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raghunathan, N. and Sheppard, T. (1989) Mat. Sci. Tech., 5, 542–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sheppard, T. and Raghunathan, N. (1989) Mat. Sci. Tech., 5, 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gruhl, W. and Cordier, H. (1968) Aluminium, 44, 403.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scharf, G., Achenbauch, D. and Gruhl, W. (1969) Z. Metallkd., 60, 515.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gruhl, W., Cordier, H. and Brungs, D. (1972) Metall., 26, 207.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scharf, G. and Eulitz, J. (1973) Aluminium, 49 (8), 549.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taylor, I.T. and Edgar, R.L. (1971) Met. Trans. A., 2, 833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bichsel, H. (1971) Metall., 25, 229–235.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maitra, S. and English, G.C. (1981) Met. Trans. A., 12, 535–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ward, D.E. and Lorimer, G.W. (1973) Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Strength of Metals and Alloys, Cambridge, 1, 488. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Doig, P. and Edington, J.W. (1975) Met. Trans. A., 6, 943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hollrigl, G. (1981) Proc. 7th International Light Metal Congress, Leoben-Vienna.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yoshida, H. and Baba, Y. (1982) Trans. Jap. Inst. Met., 23 (10), 620–630.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hollrigl, G., Bichsel, H. and Zoller, H. (1986) Proc. 4th International Extrusion Technology Seminar, Atlanta, May, 163–171. Aluminium Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jackson, A. and Sheppard, T. (1996) Proc. 6th International Extrusion Technology Seminar, Chicago, May, 541. Aluminium Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  36. Cui, J., Liu, Q., Lu, L. and Ma, L. (1990) J. Northeast Univ. Tech. (China),4 367.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parson, N.C. (1985) Ph.D. Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar, S., Ozbilen, S., Sheppard, T. and McShane, H.B. (1992) Proc. International Extrusion Technology Seminar, 439–446. The Aluminum Association/Aluminium Extruders Council, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Starke, E.A.Jr., Sanders, T.H.Jr., and Palmer, I.G. (1981) J. Met., 8 (33), 24.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Makin, P.L. and Stobbs, W.M. (1984) in Aluminium Lithium Alloys 2, (ed. T.H. Sanders Jr. and F.A. Starke Jr.), The Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, 392.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Laue, K. (1963) Z. Metallkd., 54, 667.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Köblitz, H. (1971) Al-Handbuch, VEB Verlag Technic, Berlin.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stenger, H. (1975) Wire World Int., 17, 54.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sheppard, T. and Jackson, A. (1997) Mat. Sci. Tech., 13, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sheppard, T. (1984) Proc. 3rd International Extrusion Technology Seminar, Atlanta, 1, 107. Aluminium Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry Sheppard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Product Design and ManufactureBournemouth UniversityBournemouthUK

Personalised recommendations