• Chris Heegard
  • Stephen B. Wicker
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 476)


Interleaving is a standard signal processing technique used in a variety of communications systems. An interleaver is a device that takes symbols from a fixed alphabet at the input and produces the identical symbols at the output in a different temporal order. The classical use for interleaving is to “randomize” the locations of errors introduced in transmission, allowing for the use of random error correcting codes at the receiver. Such a situation occurs in (1) burst error channels (e.g., wireless communications channels) and (2) concatenated coding, where the first stage of decoding generates burst errors (e.g., a Viterbi decoder). The more recent application of interleaving is in the parallel concatenated encoders invented by Berrou, Glavieux and Thitimajshima [BGT93].


Spreading Factor Turbo Code Memory Element Error Floor Viterbi Decoder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [AHK97]
    K. S. Andrews, C. Heegard, and D. Kozen. A theory of interleaves. Technical Report TR97–1634, Department of Computer Science, June 1997.Google Scholar
  2. [AHK98]
    K. S. Andrews, C. Heegard, and D. Kozen. Interleaver Design Methods for Turbo Codes. Proceedings of the 1998 International Symposium on Information Theory, pg. 420.Google Scholar
  3. [BG96]
    C. Berrou and A. Glavieux. Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: Turbo-Codes. IEEE Transactions on Communications, COM-44(10):1261–1271, October 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [BGT93]
    C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima. Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: Turbo Codes. In ICC, pages 1064–1070, 1993.Google Scholar
  5. [Cos75]
    J. P. Costas. Medium constraints on sonar design and performance. In FASCON Convention Record, pages 68A-68L, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. [DD95]
    S. Dolinar and D. Divsalar. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations. TDA Progress Report 42–121, JPL, August 1995.Google Scholar
  7. [DDP98]
    S. Dolinar, D. Divsalar, and F. Pollara. Code performance as a function of block size. TMO Progress Report 42–133, JPL, May 1998.Google Scholar
  8. [For71]
    G. D. Forney Jr. Burst-correcting codes for the classic bursty channel. IEEE Transactions on Communications, COM-19(10):772–781, October 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [GCCC81]
    G. C. Clark Jr. and J. B. Cain. Error-Correction Coding for Digital Communications. Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. [GT84]
    S. W. Golomb and H. Taylor. Constructions and properties of Costas arrays. Proceedings of the IEEE, 72(9):1143–1163, 1984.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [PHBB95]
    Podemski, Holubowicz, Berrou, Battail. Hamming Distance Spectra of Turbo-Codes. Annales Telecommunication, 50(9):790–797, 1995.Google Scholar
  12. [Ram70]
    J. L. Ramsey. Realization of optimum interleaves. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-16(3):338–345, May 1970.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [Ric78]
    I. Richer. A simple interleaver for use with Viterbi decoding. IEEE Transactions on Communications, COM-26(3):406–408, March 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [TDJC98]
    O. Y. Takeshita and D. J. Costello Jr.. New classes of algebraic interleavers for turbo-codes. In Abstract Book, Cambridge, MA, USA, August 1998. IEEE Information Theory Symposium.Google Scholar
  15. [Wic95]
    S. B. Wicker. Error Control Systems for Digital Communications and Storage. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Heegard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephen B. Wicker
    • 2
  1. 1.Alantro Communications, Inc.USA
  2. 2.Cornell UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations