Atoms in Motion

  • Rolf E. Hummel


So far, when discussing the properties of materials we tacitly assumed that the atoms of solids remain essentially stationary. From time to time we implied, however, that the behavior of solids is affected by the thermally induced vibrations of atoms. The changes in properties increase even more when atoms migrate through the lattice and take new positions. In order to gain a deeper insight into many mechanical properties, we therefore need to study the “dynamic case.” It will become obvious during our endeavor that the motion of atoms through solids involves less effort (energy) when open spaces are present in a lattice, as encountered, for example, by empty lattice sites. Thus, we commence with this phenomenon.


Creep Rate Edge Dislocation Volume Diffusion Lattice Atom Diffusion Creep 
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Suggestions for Further Study

  1. R.T. Dehoff, Thermodynamics in Materials Science, McGraw-Hill, New York (1993).Google Scholar
  2. R. Haase, Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Dover, New York (1990).Google Scholar
  3. R.E. Hummel, “Electromigration and Related Failure Mechanisms in Integrated Circuit Interconnects,” International Materials Reviews, 39 (1994), p. 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. P. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York (1963).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf E. Hummel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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