Electrokinetic Phenomena

  • Peter R. Bergethon


Although the cell can be thought of as a pair of phases, one intracellular and one extracellular, separated by a membrane, the membrane itself can be considered a phase. When the membrane is conceived of as a phase, the cell is described by an extracellular aqueous phase in contact with a lipid phase that contacts another aqueous phase. However, the intracellular environment should probably not be considered as a unitary aqueous phase except in the most unusual of circumstances. The structure of virtually all cells, except the mature mammalian red cell, is composed of multiple membranes and intracellular organelles packed densely together. Each membrane has associated with it two interphase regions, one on each side, representing its association with the phases. The nature of the interphase region associated with biological membranes is an extremely important aspect of the surface chemistry in biological systems and is also exceedingly complex.


Double Layer Zeta Potential Electrophoretic Mobility Diffuse Layer Viscous Force 
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Further Reading

  1. Hunter R. J. (1981) Zeta Potential in Colloid Science. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  2. Cantor C. R., and Schimmel P. R. (1980) Biophysical Chemistry, Part II. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Tinocco I., Sauer K., and Wang J. C. (1994). Physical Chemistry (Principles and Applications in the Biological Sciences), 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. van Holde K. E. (1985) Physical Biochemistry, 2d ed. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Practical Aspects of Electrophoresis

  1. Andrews A. T. (1986) Electrophoresis, 2d ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  2. Celis J.E., and Bravo R., eds. (1984) Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Freifelder D. M. (1982) Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2d ed. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Laemmli U. K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of the bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–5. This is the original paper describing SDS gel electrophoresis.Google Scholar
  5. Dittman M. M., Wienand K., Bek F., and Rozing G. P. (1995) Theory and practice of capillary electrochromatography. LC—GC, 13: 802–10.Google Scholar
  6. Bergethon P R. (1991) Altered electrophysiologic and pharmacologic response of smooth muscle cells on exposure to electric fields generated by blood flow. Biophysical Journal, 60: 588–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sawyer P. N. and Srinivasan S. (1972) The role of electrochemical surface properties in thrombosis at vascular interfaces: Cumulative experience of studies in animals and man. Bull. of N. Y. Acad Med., 48: 235–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter R. Bergethon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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