Constructing a Biological State Space

  • Peter R. Bergethon


Awareness of the existence of biological cells and an appreciation of cellular dimension are quite recent events in the history of science. In 1655 Hooke examined sections of cork with a compound microscope and described the small regular pores that he observed as “cells.” Subsequently, Leeuwenhoek, credited with making the use of the microscope practical, was first to observe protozoa in 1655 and bacteria in 1660. The awareness of the existence of substructures such as the nucleus had to wait until improvements in technology could increase the resolving power of the early microscopes; the nucleus was not described until 1833, when Brown was carefully studying the orchid. In 1835, Schleiden and Schwann proposed their cell theory, which is perhaps the fundamental principle of the science of cell biology, namely that the nucleated cell is the basic unit from which all plants and animals are built.


Endoplasmic Reticulum Adenylate Kinase Prokaryotic Cell Fumarate Hydratase Internal Milieu 
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Further Reading

General Reading

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Cell Biology

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter R. Bergethon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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