Heart failure (HF) is defined as the inability of the heart to generate a cardiac output sufficient to meet the metabolic needs of body tissues at rest or with activity. This definition is sufficiently broad to include systolic and diastolic failure, high-output failure, and cor pulmonale. The adjective “congestive” is appropriate only when there are symptoms or signs of systemic or pulmonary fluid volume overload, typically related to sodium and water retention secondary to activation of the neurohumoral axis (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and argininevasopressin system) with HF.
KeywordsCoronary Artery Bypass Grafting Right Ventricular Chronic Heart Failure Diastolic Heart Failure Isosorbide Dinitrate
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