Musculoskeletal Problems in Children

  • Mark D. Bracker
  • Wilma J. Wooten


Rotational problems resulting in gait abnormalities are the most common orthopedic conditions in the pediatric age group. Parents are frequently concerned that their child will grow up deformed or be unable to play sports as they observe in-toeing or out-toeing and seek medical attention. Most rotational abnormalities resolve spontaneously as musculature develops, and knowing this fact is reassuring to parents. Rarely, conditions remain fixed and require surgical correction at an older age. Torsional deformities may be due to problems in the foot (metatarsus adductus), tibia (torsion), or femur and hip (femoral anteversion). Angular abnormalities (bowlegs, knock-knees), if not correcting by age 2, should be investigated more carefully. Certain terminology has been recommended1 as well as specific testing used to evaluate gait (Fig. 20.1).


Femoral Head Radial Head Slip Capital Femoral Epiphysis Osteochondritis Dissecans Femoral Anteversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Bracker
  • Wilma J. Wooten

There are no affiliations available

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