Family Medicine pp 991-1004 | Cite as

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Related Disorders

  • Joseph W. GravelJr.
  • Patricia A. Sereno


Joint pain is a common presenting complaint to the family physician; and as with most conditions, a careful history and physical examination are critical to accurate diagnosis and optimal management. The physician’s first task is to differentiate between true joint pain and that from nearby anatomic structures such as tendons, ligaments, fascial planes, and nerve distributions or in bursal areas. The importance of accurate diagnosis of chronic joint pain (> six weeks) has been even more accentuated in recent years by earlier use of drugs other than nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Ankylose Spondylitis Psoriatic Arthritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Michet C, Hunder GG. Examination of the joints. In: Kelley WN Jr, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, editors. Textbook of rheumatology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1989:425–41.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Clinical Guidelines. Guidelines for the initial evaluation of the adult patient with acute musculoskeletal symptoms. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boardman PL, Hart FD. Clinical measurement of the antiinflammatory effects of salicylates in rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1967;4:264–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stone CE. The lifetime economic costs of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1984;11:819–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Sullivan JB, Cathcart ES. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1972;76:573–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith CA, Arnett FC. Diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis: current criteria. Am Fam Physician 1991;44:863–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mens JM. Correlation of joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis and in ankylosing spondylitis with the syno-viakcartilagenous surface ratio of various joints. Arthritis Rheum 1987;30:359–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ball EV, Koopoman WJ. Disorders of rheumatologic allergic and dermatologie systems. In: Kelley WN, editor. Kelley’s textbook of internal medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lip-pincott, 1992:914–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fries JF. Assessment of the patient with rheumatic disease. In: Kelley WN Jr, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, editors. Textbook of rheumatology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1989:417–24.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yelin E, Callahan LF. The economic cost and social and psychological impact of musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1351–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kremer JM, Michalek AV, Lininges L, et al. Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1985;1:184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liang MH. Psychosocial aspects of rheumatological diseases. In: Kelley WN Jr, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, editors. Textbook of rheumatology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1989:611–20.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abramowicz M, editor. Drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Med Lett 1994;36:101–6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Graham DY, White RH, Moreland LW, et al. Duodenal and gastric ulcer prevention with misoprostol in arthritis patients taking NSAIDs. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:257–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fries JF, Williams CA, Bloch DA. The relative toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheumatol 1991;34:1353–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van der Heijde DM, van Leeuwen MA, van Riel PL, et al. Biannual radiographic assessments of hands and feet in a three-year prospective follow-up of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 1992;35:26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cash JM, Klippel JH. Second-line drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1368–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harris WH, Sledge CB. Total hip and total knee replacement. N Engl J Med 1990;323:725–31, 801–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tilley BC, Alarcon GS, Heyse SP, et al. Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:81–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mills J. Systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1994; 330:1871–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Condemi J. The autoimmune diseases. JAMA 1992;268:2882–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boumpas D, Fessier B, Austin H, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Part 2. Dermatologie and joint disease, the anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, pregnancy and hormonal therapy, morbidity and mortality, and pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:42–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Osial T, Cash J, Eisenbeis C. Arthritis associated syndromes. Prim Care 1993;20:857–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boumpas D, Austin H, Fessier B, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus: emerging concepts. Part 1. Renal, neuropsychiatrie, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and hematologic disease. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:940–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hughes R, Keat A. Reiter ‘s syndrome and reactive arthritis: a current view. Sem Arthritis Rheum 1994;24(3):190–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kirchner J. Reiter’s syndrome. Postgrad Med 1995;97:111–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kahaleh B, Matucci-Cerinic M. Raynaud’s phenomenon and scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adee A. Managing Raynaud’s phenomenon: a practical approach. Am Fam Phys 1993;47(4):823–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dowd P. Raynaud’s phenomenon. Lancet 1995;346:283–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sjögren R. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:1265–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Edwards J, Porter J. Raynaud’s syndrome and small vessel arteriopathy. Semin Vase Surg 1993;6:56–65.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lehrer S, Bogursky E, Yemmini M, et al. Gynecologic manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 170:835–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Merritt J, McLean T, Erickson R, et al. Measurement of trunk flexibility in normal subjects: reproducibility of three clinical methods. Mayo Clin Proc 1986;61:192–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gladman D. Toward unraveling the mystery of psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:881–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Salvarini C, Gabriel S, O’Fallon M, Hunder G. Epidemiology of polymyalgia rheumatica in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1970–1991. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:369–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pountain G, Hazleman B. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. BMJ 1995;310:1057–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph W. GravelJr.
  • Patricia A. Sereno

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations