Disorders of the Lower Extremity

  • Kenneth M. Bielak


The lower extremities facilitate the maintenance of stature and balance, have intimate contact with the ground, and are responsible for movement over that ground. Thus injuries to the lower extremities are more frequent than those to the upper extremities. The bones and muscles of the lower extremity are relatively longer and stronger, and greater forces are required to disrupt the connections between them. This chapter provides basic information on the history, mechanism of injury, and testing procedures necessary to make an accurate diagnosis and formulate a specific management plan for injuries to the lower extremity. The common injuries are described in detail. Reference is made to uncommon and high impact injuries that should not be missed. Other systemic disorders and sports-related and pediatric injuries are covered in other chapters, though there is some degree of overlap.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament Medial Collateral Ligament Ankle Sprain Patellar Dislocation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

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  • Kenneth M. Bielak

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