Disorders of the Back and Neck

  • Walter L. Calmbach


Low back pain occurs in 60% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives and is second only to upper respiratory infections as a cause for absence from work.1 Each year 2% of all American workers have a compensable back injury, and 14% lose at least one work day due to low back pain.2 Among chronic conditions, back problems are the most frequent cause for limitation of activity (work, housekeeping, school) among patients under 45 years of age.3 Nonsurgical low back pain is the fourth most common admission diagnosis for patients over 65.4 Although low back pain is usually a self-limited problem, it still costs approximately $24 billion per year in direct medical expenses and another $27 billion per year in lost productivity and compensation.5 In most cases, low back pain is treated successfully with a conservative regimen, supplemented by selective use of neuroradiologic imaging and appropriate surgical intervention for a few patients.6


Nerve Root Disc Herniation Lumbar Disc Herniation Whiplash Injury Cervical Myelopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

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  • Walter L. Calmbach

There are no affiliations available

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