• Keith W. Millikan


Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, can be quite distressful to a patient of any age. The history and physical exam may help identify Physiologic or anatomic causes. One must also determine whether a neurologic process has occurred and disrupted the swallowing mechanism; for example, a patient may have new onset aspiration during an attempt to initiate swallowing or may have lost the gag reflex as after a recent stroke.


Lower Esophageal Sphincter Heller Myotomy Epiphrenic Diverticulum Recent Stroke Esophageal Myotomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith W. Millikan

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