Extracranial Cerebrovascular Disease

  • Theodore J. Saclarides


Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States; during the first stroke approximately 20–30% of patients will die. At least 25% of patients will have a second stroke with a mortality of approximately 60%. Most strokes (80%) are ischemic in nature and, of these, 80% are due to carotid artery stenoses or plaques which embolize. The remaining 20% of ischemic strokes are due to a recent myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, or paradoxical emboli. Twenty percent of strokes are hemorrhagic in nature and result from uncontrolled hypertension or arterio-venous malformations. Evaluation of the carotid artery is best performed with duplex scanning and digital angiography.


Carotid Artery Transient Ischemic Attack Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Artery Disease Duplex Scanning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore J. Saclarides

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