Characteristics of Specific Radiopharmaceuticals

  • Gopal B. Saha


In Chapter 6 the general principles of labeling methods, particularly iodina-tion and 99mTc-labeling, have been discussed, and kit preparation for formulation of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals has been described. In this chapter the practical aspects of preparation, labeling yield, stability, storage conditions, and other characteristics of radiopharmaceuticals most commonly used in nuclear medicine will be discussed.


Label Efficiency Stannous Chloride Label Yield Acid Citrate Dextrose Mallinckrodt Medical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Suggested Reading

  1. Abrams MJ, Davison A, Jones AG, et al. Synthesis and characterization of hexakis (alkylisocyanide) and hexakis (arylisocyanide complexes of Technetium (I). Inorg Chem. 1983; 22:2798.Google Scholar
  2. Callahan RJ, Froelich JW, McKusick KA, et al. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m: concise communication. J Nucl Med. 1982; 23:315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Dewanjee MK. The chemistry of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Semin Nucl Med. 1990; 20:5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eckelman WC, Stiegman J, Paik CH. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In: Harpert J, Eckelman WC, Neumann RD, eds, Nuclear Medicine: Diagnosis and Therapy. New York: Thieme Medical; 1996:217.Google Scholar
  5. Edwards DS, Cheeseman EH, Watson MW, et al. Synthesis and characterization of technetium and rhenium complexes of N, N’-l, 2-diethylenediylbis-L-cysteine. Neurolites and its metabolites. In: Nicolini M, Bandoli G, Mazzi U, eds. Technetium and Rhenium in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine. Verona, Italy: Cortina International; 1990; 433.Google Scholar
  6. Ege GN, Warbick A. Lymphoscintigraphy: a comparison of Tc-99m antimony sulfide and Tc-99m stannous phytate. Br J Radiol 1979; 53:124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fritzberg AR, Kasina S, Eshima D, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m MAG3 as hippuran replacement. J Nucl Med. 1986; 27:11.Google Scholar
  8. Hamacher K, Coenen HH, Stocklin G. Efficient stereospecific synthesis of NCA 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose using aminopolyether supported nucleophilic substitution. J Nucl Med. 1986; 27:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hnatowich DJ. Recent developments in the radiolabeling of antibodies with iodine, indium and technetium Semin Nucl Med. 1990; 20:80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelly JD, Forster AM, Higley B, et al. Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin as a new radiopharmaceutical for myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 1993; 34:222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kohler G, Milstein C. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature. 1975; 256:495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Loberg MD, Cooper M, Harvey E, et al. Development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on N-substitution of iminodiacetic acid. J Nucl Med. 1976; 17:633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Luxen A, Bida GT, Phelps ME, et al. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure D and L 6-[F-18] fluorodopa and in vivo metabolites via regioselective fluorodemercuration. J Nucl Med. 1987; 28:624.Google Scholar
  14. Nunn AD. Radiopharmaceutical for imaging myocardial perfusion. Semin Nucl Med. 1990; 20:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Package inserts of various kits available from commercial suppliers.Google Scholar
  16. Peters AM, Danpure HJ, Osman S, et al. Clinical experience with 99mTc-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime for labeling leukocytes and imaging inflammation. Lancet. 1986; 2:946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sodd VJ, Allen DR, Hoagland DR, et al., eds. Radiopharmaceuticals II. New York: Society of Nuclear Medicine; 1979.Google Scholar
  18. ten Berge RJM, Natarajan AT, Hardenman MR, et al. Labeling with indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes. J Nucl Med. 1983; 24:615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Thakur ML, Coleman RE, Welch MJ. Indium-Ill-labeled leukocytes for the localization of abscesses: preparation, analysis, tissue distribution and comparison with gallium-67 citrate in dogs. J Lab Clin Med. 1977; 82:217.Google Scholar
  20. Troutner DR, Volkert WA, Hoffman TJ, et al. A neutral lipophilic complex of Tc-99m with a multidentate amine oxime. Int J Appl Radiat Isot. 1984; 35:467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. U.S. Pharmacopeia XXVIII. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD; 1996.Google Scholar
  22. Welch MJ, ed. Radiopharmaceuticals and Other compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides. New York: Pergamon Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  23. Zuckier LS, Rodriguez LD, Scharff MD. Immunologic and pharmacologic concepts of monoclonal antibodies. Semin Nucl Med. 1990; 20:166.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gopal B. Saha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations