The advent of the laser changed the whole face of atomic standards research in a number of fundamental respects: from the cooling and confinement of large numbers of neutral atoms, directly applicable to the radical improvement of the cesium standard, to the cooling of single ions. This latter made possible, in one revolutionary advance, the realization of the ideal goal that motivated the original prelaser forays into field suspension of ions, culminating in the Hg+ ion standard. That goal was to completely isolate the reference particle from its environment, and in so doing to observe its true resonance, free from Doppler shifts and uncontrolled random perturbations. In this chapter we will touch on the various new applications of lasers that have transformed the cesium and Hg+ ion standards and taken them to new levels of performance.
KeywordsAtomic Beam Paul Trap Reference Transition Spectral Line Width Resonant Field
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