Optical Frequency Oscillators: Lasers

  • F. G. Major


The first international conference at which papers were presented on the subject of “optical masers,” as they were then called, was at Ann Arbor in June 1959. The principal topic of the conference was not lasers, but the optical pumping method of observing magnetic resonance in free atoms, a technique that had recently been introduced by Kastler in Paris. The session devoted to lasers was a “miscellaneous session” in which papers on theoretical aspects of laser oscillation in gas discharges and ruby crystals were presented by Gould, Javan, and Schawlow, among others.


Light Emit Diode Light Wave Helium Atom Optical Field Population Inversion 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. G. Major
    • 1
  1. 1.Severna ParkUSA

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