Psychological and Psychiatric Consequences of Caffeine

  • Marilyn E. Carroll


The widespread and long-term use of caffeine in adults as well as children raises the question of whether there are psychological and psychiatric consequences of caffeine use in normal individuals. A related question regards the effects of caffeine on various psychological states such as stress, or in those diagnosed with specific psychiatric disorders. This chapter reviews some of the main psychological and psychiatric conditions in which caffeine has been shown to have effects. The medical consequences of caffeine use, and the therapeutic uses of caffeine, are also briefly discussed, because with serious acute or chronic medical conditions, or long-term therapeutic use of a drug, there are often associated psychological and psychiatric consequences. A discussion of caffeine use in children is also included, because caffeine is the only psychoactive drug legally available to children, and methylxanthines, including caffeine, have been used therapeutically in disorders that are common to children such as asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.


Panic Disorder Caffeine Intake Caffeine Consumption Premenstrual Syndrome Morphine Withdrawal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Arbeit, M. L., Nicklas, T. A., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., Miner, M. H., & Berenson, G. S. (1988). Caffeine intakes of children from a biracial population: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 88, 466–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, L. E., Christopher, J., Huestis, R., & Smeltzer, D. J. (1978). Methylphenidate vs dextroamphetamine vs caffeine in minimal brain dysfunction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 463–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, M. E., Petros, T. V., Beckwith, B. E., Coons, G., & Gorman, N. (1987). The effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and sex on memory for word lists. Physiology and Behavior, 41, 25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A. (1987). Effects of caffeine on classroom behavior, sustained attention, and a memory task in preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battig, J., & Buzzi, R. (1986). The effect of coffee on the speed of subject-paced information processing. Neuropsychobiology, 16, 126–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benowitz, N. L. (1990). Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Annual Review of Medicine, 41, 277–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benowitz, N. L., Hall, S. M., & Modin, G. (1989). Persistent increase in caffeine concentrations in people who stop smoking. British Medical Journal, 298, 1075–1076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernstein, G. A., Carroll, M. E., Crosby, R. D., Perwein, A. R., Go, F. S., & Benowitz, N. L. (1994). Caffeine effects on learning, performance and anxiety in normal school-age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 407–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boulenger, J. P., Wade, T. W., Wolff, E. A., Ill, & Post, R. M. (1984). Increased sensitivity to caffeine in patients with panic disorders: Preliminary evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1067–1071.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, C. R., & Benowitz, N. L. (1989). Caffeine and cigarette smoking: Behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic interactions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 34, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruce, M., Scott, N., Shine, P., & Lader, M. (1991). Caffeine withdrawal: A contrast of withdrawal symptoms in normal subjects who have abstained from caffeine for 24 hours and 7 days. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 5, 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruce, M., Scott, N., Shine, P, & Lader, M. (1992). Anxiogenic effects of caffeine in patients with anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 867–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butt, N. M., Collier, H. O. J., Cuthberg, N. J., Francis, D. L., & Saeed, S. A. (1979). Mechanism of quasi-morphine withdrawal behaviour induced by methylxanthines. European Journal of Pharmacology, 53, 375–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caan, B., Duncan, D., Hiatt, R., Lewis, J., Chapman, J., & Armstrong, M. A. (1993). Association between alcoholic and caffeinated beverages and premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 38, 630–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter, J. A. (1959). The effect of alcohol and caffeine on simple visual reaction time. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 491–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll, M. E., & Lac, S. T. (1998). Dietary additives and the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology, 137, 81–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chait, L. D., & Griffiths, R. R. (1983). Effects of caffeine on cigarette smoking and subjective response. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 34, 612–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Charney, D. S., Heninger, G. R., & Jatlow, P. (1985). Increased anxiogenic effects of caffeine in panic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 233–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cherek, D. R. (1981). Effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on human aggressive behavior. Psychopharmacology. 75, 339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., & Brauchi, J. T. (1983). Effects of caffeine on human aggressive behavior. Psychiatry Research, 8, 137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., & Brauchi, J. T. (1984). Regular or decaffeinated coffee and subsequent human aggressive behavior. Psychiatry Research, 11, 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clubley, M., Bye, C. E., Henson, T. A., Peck, A. W., & Riddington, C. J. (1979). Effects of caffeine and cyclizine alone and in combination on human performance, subjective effects and EEG activity. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 7, 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Comer, S. D., & Carroll, M. E. (1996). Oral caffeine pretreatment produced modest increase in cocaine administration in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology, 126, 281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conners, C. K. (1975). A placebo-crossover study of caffeine treatment of hyperkinetic children. International Journal of Mental Health, 4, 132–143.Google Scholar
  26. Damrau, F., & Damrau, A. M. (1963). Use of soft drinks by children and adolescents. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal 60, 37–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Elkins, R. N., Rapoport, J. L., Zahn, T. P, Buchsbaum, M. S., Weingartner, H., Kopin, I. J., Langer, D., & Johnson, C. (1981) Acute effects of caffeine in normal prepubertal boys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 178–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Emurian, H. H., Nellis, M. J., Brady, J. V., & Ray, R. L. (1982). Event time-series relationship between cigarette smoking and coffee drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 441–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Erikson, G. C., Hager, L. B., Houseworth, C., Dungan, J., Petros, T., & Beckwith, B. E. (1985). The effects of caffeine on memory for word lists. Physiology and Behavior, 35, 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. File, S. E., Bond, A. J., & Lister, R. G. (1982). Interaction between effects of caffeine and lorazepam in performance tests and self-ratings. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2, 102–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Firestone, P, Davey, J., Goodman, J. T., & Peters, S. (1978). The effects of caffeine and methylphenidate on hyperactive children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 445–456Google Scholar
  32. Foreman, N., Barraclough, S., Moore, C., Mehta, A., & Madon, M. (1989). High doses of caffeine impair performance on a numerical version of the Stroop test in men. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 32, 349–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. France, C., & Ditto, B. (1988). Caffeine effects on several indices of cardiovascular activity at rest and during stress. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11, 473–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frewer, L. J., & Lader, M. (1991). The effects of caffeine on’two computerised tests of attention and vigilance. Human Psychopharmacology, 6, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furlong, F. W. (1975). Possible psychiatric significance of excessive coffee consumption. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 20, 577–583.Google Scholar
  36. Garfinkel, B. D., Webster, C. D., & Sloman, L. (1975). Methylphenidate and caffeine in the treatment of children with minimal brain dysfunction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 723–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Garfinkel, B. D., Webster, C. D., & Sloman, L. (1981). Responses to methylphenidate and varied doses of caffeine in children with attention deficit disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 395–401.Google Scholar
  38. Gilbert, R. M. (1986). Caffeine, the most popular stimulant. New York: Chelsea House.Google Scholar
  39. Greden, J. F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 1089–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Greden, J. E, Fontaine, P., Lubetsky, M., & Chamberlin, K. (1978). Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 963–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greden, J. F., Victor, B. S., Fontaine, P., & Lubetsky, M. (1980). Caffeine-withdrawal headache: A clinical profile. Psychosomatics, 21, 411–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffiths, R. R., Bigelow, G. E., & Liebson, I. A. (1986). Human coffee drinking: Reinforcing and physical dependence producing effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 239, 416–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffiths, R. R., Bigelow, G. E., Liebson, I. A., O’Keeffe, M., O’Leary, D., & Russ, N. (1986). Human coffee drinking: Manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 45, 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Griffiths, R. R., Bigelow, G. E., & Liebson, I. A. (1989). Reinforcing effect of caffeine in coffee and capsules. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior; 52, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haleem, D., Yasmeen, A., Haleem, M. A., & Zafar, A. (1995). 24-h withdrawal following repeated administration of caffeine attenuates brain serotonin but not tryptophan in rat brain: Implications for caffeine-induced depression. Life Sciences 57, PL285–292.Google Scholar
  46. Hemenway, D., Solnick, S. J., & Colditz, G. A. (1993). Smoking and suicide among nurses. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 249–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Heyden, S. (1993) Coffee and cardiovascular diseases: A personal view after 30 years of research. In S. Garattini (Ed.), Coffee, caffeine, and health (pp. 177–193 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  48. Holle, C., Heimberg, R. G., Sweet, R. A., & Holt, C. S. (1995). Alcohol and caffeine use by social phobics: An initial inquiry into drinking patterns and behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy 33, 561–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Borger, B. A., Wellman, P. J., Morien, A., Davies, B. T., & Schenk, S. (1991). Caffeine exposure sensitizes rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Neuro Report, 2, 53–56.Google Scholar
  50. Huestis, R. D., Arnold, L. E., & Smeltzer, D. J. (1975). Caffeine versus methylphenidate and d-amphetamine in minimal brain dysfunction: A double-blind comparison. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 868–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hughes, G. V, & Boland, F. J. (1992). The effects of caffeine and nicotine consumption on mood and somatic variables in a penitentiary inmate population. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 447–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Humphreys, M. S., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Istvan, J., & Matarazzo, J. D. (1984). Tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use: A review of their interactions. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 301–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. James, J. E. (1991). Caffeine and health. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. James, J. E., & Crosbie, J. (1987). Somatic and psychological health implications of heavy caffeine use. British Journal ofAddiction, 82, 503–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jarvis, M. J. (1993). Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology, 110, 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, R. T. (1981). Caffeine enhances morphine dependence in humans. In Advances in endogenous and exogenous opioids (pp. 472–474). Proceedings of the International Narcotic Research Conference, Kyoto, Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha.Google Scholar
  58. Kawachi, 1., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Rosner, B., Hunter, D. T., Hennekens, C. H., & Speizer, F. E. (1993). Smoking cessation in relation to total mortality rates in women: A prospective cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119, 992–1000.Google Scholar
  59. Kawachi, 1., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., & Speizer, E. E. (1996). A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 156, 521–525.Google Scholar
  60. Kerr, J. S., Sherwood, N., & Hindemarch, I. (1991). Separate and combined effects of the social drugs on psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacology, 104, 113–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klein, E., Zohar, J., Geraci, M. E, Murphy, D. L., & Uhde, T. W. (1991). Anxiogenic effects of m-CPP in patients with panic disorder: Comparison to caffeine’s anxiogenic effects. Biological Psychiatry, 30, 973–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kozlowski, L. T. (1976). Effects of caffeine consumption on nicotine consumption. Psychopharmacology, 47, 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lane, J. D., & Rose, J. E. (1995). Effects of daily caffeine intake on smoking behavior in the natural environment. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lapin, I. P. (1993). Anxiogenic effect of phenethylamine and amphetamine in the elevated plus-maze in mice and its attenuation by ethanol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 44, 241–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lau, C. E., & Falk, J. L. (1991). Sustained synergism by chronic caffeine of the motor control deficit produced by midazolam. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 40, 723–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee, M. A., Flegel, P., Greden, J. E, & Cameron, O. G. (1988). Anxiogenic effects of caffeine on panic and depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 632–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lieberman, H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., & Coviella, I. G. L. (1987). The effects of caffeine and aspirin on mood and performance. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lieberman, H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts, C., & Coviella, I. G. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 92, 308–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Loke, W. H. (1988). Effects of caffeine on mood and memory. Physiology and Behavior; 44, 367–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Loke, W. H., Hinrichs, J. V., & Ghonheim, M. M. (1985). Caffeine and diazepam: Separate and combined effects on mood, memory, psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacology, 87, 344–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Manila, M. J. (1984). Interactions of benzodiazepines on psychomotor skills. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 18, 21S - 26S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayo, K. M., Falkowski, W., & Jones, C. A. (1993). Caffeine: Use and effects in long-stay psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 543–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mikkelsen, E. J. (1978). Caffeine and schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 732–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller, L. S., Lombardo, T. W, & Fowler, S. C. (1995). Caffeine and time of day effects on a force discrimination task in humans. Physiology and Behavior, 57, 1117–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mino, Y., Yasuda, N., Fujimura, T., & Ohara, H. (1990). Caffeine consumption and anxiety and depressive symptomatology among medical students. Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies and Drug Dependence, 25, 486–496.Google Scholar
  76. Misra, A. L., Vadlamani, N. L., & Pontani, R. B. (1986). Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 14, 761–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Robertson, D., & Robertson, R. M. (1993). The cardiovascular effects of caffeine. In S. Garattini (Ed.), Caffeine, coffee, and health (pp. 157–176 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  78. Nehlig, A., Daval, J. L., & Debry, G. (1992). Caffeine and the central nervous system: Mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic, and psychostimulant effects. Brain Research-Brain Research Reviews, 17, 139–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neill, J. E, Himmelhock, J. M., Mallinger, A. G., Mallinger, J., & Hamin, I. (1978). Caffeinism complicating hypersomnic depressive episodes. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 19, 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nellis, M. J., Emurian, H. H., Brady, J. V, & Ray, R. L. (1982). Behavior analysis of cigarette smoking. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 17, 140–149.Google Scholar
  81. Newman, E, Stein, M. B., Trettau, J. R., Coppola, R., & Uhde, T. W. (1992). Quantitative electroencephalographic effects of caffeine in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 45, 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nil, R., Buzzi, R., & Bättig, K. (1984). Effects of single doses of alcohol and caffeine on cigarette smoke puffing behavior. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 20, 583–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oliveto, A. H., Hughes, J. R., Terry, S. Y., Bickel, W. K., Higgins, S. T., Pepper, S. L., & Fenwick, J. W. (1991). Effects of caffeine on tobacco withdrawal. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 50, 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Penetar, D., McCann, U., Thorne, D., Kamimori, G., Galinski, C., Sing, H., Thomas, M., & Belenky, G. (1993). Caffeine reversal of sleep deprivation effects on alertness and mood. Psychopharmacology, 112, 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pincomb, G. A., Lorallo, W. R., Passey, R. B., & Wilson, M. F. (1988). Effects of behavior state on caffeine’s ability to alter blood pressure. American Journal of Cardiology, 61, 798–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pritchard, W. S., Robinson, J. H., de Bethizy, J. D., Davis, R. A., & Stiles, M. F. (1995). Caffeine and smoking: Subjective, performance, and physiological effects. Psychophysiology, 32, 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rapoport, J. L., Jensvold, M., Elkins, R., Buchsbaum, M. S., Weingartner, H., Ludlow, C., Zahn, T. P., Berg, C. J., & Neims, A. H. (1981). Behavioral and cognitive effects of caffeine in boys and adult males. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169, 726–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rapoport, J. L., Berg, C. J., lsmond, D. R., Zahn, T. P, & Neims, A. (1984). Behavioral effects of caffeine in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1073–1079.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ratliff-Crain, J., O’Keeffe, M. K., & Baum, A. (1989). Cardiovascular reactivity, mood and task performance in deprived and nondeprived coffee drinkers. Health Psychology, 8, 427–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Reichard, C., & Elder, S. T. (1977). Effects of caffeine on reaction time in hyperkinetic and normal children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Richardson, N. J., Rogers, P. J., Elliman, N. A., & O’Dell, R. J. (1995). Mood and performance effects of caffeine in relation to acute and chronic caffeine deprivation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 52, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rihs, C., Müller, C., & Baumann (1996). Caffeine consumption in hospitalized psychiatric patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 246, 83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Roache, J. D., & Griffiths, R. R. (1987). Interactions of diazepam and caffeine: Behavioral and subjective dose effects in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 26, 801–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rogers, P. J., Richardson, N. J., Dernoncourt, C. (1995). Caffeine use: Is there a net benefit for mood and psychomotor performance? Neuropsychobiology, 31, 195–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rose, J. E., & Behm, E. M. (1991). Psychophysiological interactions between caffeine and nicotine. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 38, 333–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rumsey, J., & Rapoport, J. (1983). Behavioral effects of diet in children. In R. J. Wurtman & J. J. Wurtman (Eds.), Nutrition and the brain (Vol. 6, pp. 101–161 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  97. Sachs, D., & Benowitz, N. (1988). The nicotine with- drawal syndrome: Nicotine absence or caffeine ex- cess? In Proceedings of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 1988 (National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 90, p. 38 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  98. Sawyer, D. A., Julia, H. L., & Turin, A. C. (1982). Caffeine and human behavior: Arousal, anxiety, and performance effects. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 415–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sawynok, J. (1995). Pharmacological rationale for the clinical use of caffeine. Drugs, 39, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schenk, S., Horger, B. A., & Snow, S. (1989). Caffeine pre-exposure sensitizes rats to the motor activating effects of cocaine. Behavioural Pharmacology, 1, 447–451.Google Scholar
  101. Schenk, S., Valadez, A., Horger, B. A., Snow, S., & Wellman, P. J. (1994). Interactions between caffeine and cocaine in tests of self-administration. Behavioural Pharmacology, 5, 153–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schenk, S., Worley, C. M., McNamara, C., & Valadez, A. (1996). Acute and repeated exposure to caffeine: Effects on reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-taking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology, 126, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schnackenberg, R. C. (1973). Caffeine as a substitute for schedule II stimulants in hyperkinetic children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 796–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Shaffer, D. (1993). Suicide: Risk factors and the public health. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 171–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Silverman, K., Evans, S. M., Strain, E. C., & Griffiths, R. R. (1992). Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1109–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Smith, A. P., Rusted, J. M., Eaton-Williams, P., Savory, M., & Leathwood, P. (1990). Effects of caffeine given before and after lunch on sustained attention. Neuropsychobiology, 23, 160–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spindel, E. R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1984). Neuroendocrine effects of caffeine in rat and man. In P. B. Dews (Ed.), Caffeine (pp. 129–141 ). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  108. Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M., Leventhal, B. L., Phillips, W., & Bender, B. G. (1996). Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines: A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stephenson, P. E. (1977). Physiologic and psychotropic effects of caffeine on man. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 71, 240–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stern, K. N., Chait, L. D., & Johanson, C. E. (1989). Reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine in normal volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 98, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Strain, E. C., & Griffiths, R. R. (1995). Caffeine dependence: Fact or fiction? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 88, 437–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Strain, E. C., Mumford, G. H., Silverman, K., & Griffiths, R. R. (1994). Caffeine dependence syndrome: Effects from case histories and experimental evaluations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1043–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Swanson, J. A., Lee, J. W, & Hopp, J. W. (1994). Caffeine and nicotine: A review of their joint use and possible interactive effects in tobacco withdrawal. Addictive Behaviors, 19, 229–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Swift, C. G., & Tiplady, B. (1988). The effects of age on the response to caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 94, 29–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Taylor, J. L., & Tinklenburg, J. R. (1987). Cognitive impairment and benzodiazepines. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 1449–1454 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  116. Terry, W. S., & Phifer, B. (1986). Caffeine and memory performance on the AVLT. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 860–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Truitt, E. B., Jr. (1971). The xanthines. In J. R. DiPalma (Ed.), Drill’s pharmacology in medicine (pp. 83–99 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  118. Uhde, T. W, Boulenger, J. P., Jimerson, D. C., & Post, R. M. (1984). Caffeine: Relationship to human anxiety, plasma MHPG, and cortisol. Psychopharmacology. Bulletin, 20, 426–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. van der Stelt, O., & Snel, J. (1993). Effects of caffeine on human information processing. ln S. Garattini (Ed.), Caffeine, coffee, and health (pp. 291–316 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  120. Walsh, J. K., Muehlbach, M. J., Humm, T. M., Dickins Q. S., Sugerman, J. L., & Schweitzer, P. K. (1990). Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night. Psychopharmacology, 101, 271–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Woods, J. H., Katz, J. L., Winger, G. (1987). Abuse liability of benzodiazepines. Pharmacological Reviews, 39, 251–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Zwyghuizen-Doorenbos, A., Roehrs, T. A., Lipschutz, L., Timms, V., & Roth, T. (1990). Effects of caffeine on alertness. Psychopharmacology, 100, 36–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn E. Carroll
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations