Psychological and Psychiatric Consequences of Opiates

  • Mark S. Gold
  • Christopher R. Johnson


The powerful effects of opiates have been well known from the dawn of human existence. The poppy art of Assyria from 4000 B.C. to the increasing popularity of heroin in present times illustrates the tenacious hold opiates have on our lives. Opium, the Latin derivation of the Greek opos,meaning juice, has long been associated with sleep. Opiates are the natural alkaloids of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). They include such substances as codeine and morphine. Narcotics are a broader group of opiate-like drugs which include synthesized substances like methadone, fentanyl, heroin, and meperidine. However, “narcotics” is often loosely used in common parlance to refer to any illicit drug.


Opioid Receptor Locus Coeruleus Opioid Peptide Cocaine Dependence Opioid Withdrawal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akil, H., Mayer, D. J., & Liebeskind, J. C. (1976). Antagonism of stimulation-produced analgesia by naloxone, a narcotic antagonist. Science, 191, 961–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Arditti J, Bourdon, J. H., Jean, P., Landi, H., Nasset, D., Jouglard, J., & Thirion, X. (1992). Buprenorphine abuse in a group of 50 drug-use abusers admitted to Marseille Hospital. Therapie, 47. 561–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Batten, H., Prottas, J., Horgan, C. M., Simon, L. J., Larson, M. J., Elliot, E. A., & Marsden, M. E. (1993). Drug services research survey final report: Phase 11. Waltham, MA: Bigel Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University. Contract 271–90–8319/1. Submitted to National Institute on Drug Abuse, February 22, 1993.Google Scholar
  5. Charney, D. S., Heninger, G. R., & Kleber, H. D. (1986). The combined use of clonidine and naltrexone as a rapid, safe, and effective treatment of abrupt withdrawal from methadone. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 831–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Childers, S. R. (1991). Minireview: Opioid receptor-coupled second messenger systems. Life Science, 48, 1991–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cone, E., Holicky, B., Pickworth, W., & Johnson, R. E. (1991, June). Pharmacologie and behavioral effects of high doses of intravenous buprenorphine. Report of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 53rd annual scientific meeting, Palm Beach, FL.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, B. M., Goldstein, A., & Li, C. H. (1976). Opioid activity of a peptide, B-lipotropin (61–91) derived from B-lipotropin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 73. 1821–1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dackis, C. A., & Gold M. S. (1985). New concepts in cocaine addiction: The dopamine depletion hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 9, 469–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donnerer, J., Oka, K., Brossi, A., Rice, K. C., & Spector, S. (1986). Presence and formation of codeine and morphine in the rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83, 4566–4567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farrell, M., & Strang, J. (1995). Compressed opiate withdrawal syndrome and naltrexone. Journal of Psychopharmacologv, 94, 383–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fulco, C. E., Liverman, C. T., & Earley, L. E. (Eds.). (1995). The development of medications. for the treatment of opiate and cocaine addictions. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gastfriend, D. R., Mendelson, J. H., Mello, N. K., & Teoh, S. K. (1991, June). Preliminary results of an open trial of buprenorphine in the outpatient treatment of combined heroin and cocaine dependence. Paper presented to the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 53rd annual scientific meeting, Palm Beach, FL.Google Scholar
  14. Gold M. S. (1995). Principles of addiction medicine, Section 2, Chap. 4 (First official manual for American Society of Addiction Medicine: Opioids, pharmacology of addictive drugs). Chevy Chase, MD: ASAM.Google Scholar
  15. Gold, M. S. (Ed.). (1993). The facts about tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, 4, University of Florida, Drug Abuse Warning Network.Google Scholar
  16. Gold, M. S., & Roehrich, H. (1987). Treatment of opiate withdrawal with clonidine. ISl: Atlas of Science: Pharmacology, 1741, 29–32.Google Scholar
  17. Gold, M. S., Redmond, D. E., & Kleber, H. D. (1978a). Clonidine blocks acute opiate withdrawal symptoms. Lancet, 2, 599–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gold, M. S., Redmond D. E., & Kleber, H. D. (1978b). Clonidine in opiate withdrawal. Lancet. 1, 929–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gold M. S., Pottash, A. L., Extein, I., & Kleber, H. D. (1980). Anti endorphin effects of methadone. Lancet. 2, 972–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldstein, A. (1975). Are opiate tolerance and dependence reversible? In H. D. Cappell & A. E. LeBlanc (Eds.), Biological and behavioral approaches to drug dependence (pp. 27–41). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Addiction Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, A., & Herrera, J. (1995). Heroin addicts and methadone treatment in Albuquerque: A 22 year fol- low-up. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,40, 139–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grayson, N. A., Witkin, J. M., Katz, J. L., Cowan, A., & Rice, K. C. (1991, June). Actions of buprenorphine on cocaine and opiate mediated effects. Paper presented to the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 53rd annual scientific meeting, Palm Beach, FL.Google Scholar
  23. Harwood, H. J., Thomson, M., & Nesmith, T. (1994). Healthcare reform and substance abuse treatment: The cost of financing under alternative approaches. Fairfax, VA: Lewin-VI-II.Google Scholar
  24. Hughes, J. (1975). Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with properties similar to morphine. Brain Research, 88, 295–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Izenwasser, S., Newman, A. H., Cox, B. M., & Katz, J. L. (1996). The cocaine-like behavioral effects of meperidine are mediated by activity at the dopamine transporter. European Journal of Pharmacology,297, 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jasinski, D. R., Pevnick, J. S., & Griffith, J. D. (1978). Human pharmacology and abuse potential of the analgesic buprenorphine. Archives of General Psychiatry,35, 501–516. Google Scholar
  27. Johnson, R. E., Fudala, P. J., & Jaffe, J. H. (1992). A controlled trial of buprenorphine for opioid dependence. Journal of the American Medical Association,267, 2750–2755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnston, L. M. (1995). The UM/NIDA Monitoring the Future Study. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  29. Karch, S. B. (1989). The history of cocaine toxicity. Human Pathology,20(11), 1037–1039.Google Scholar
  30. Koob, G. F., & Bloom, F. E. (1988). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence. Science,242, 715–723. Google Scholar
  31. Kosten, T. R., & McCance, E. A. (1996). Review of pharmacotherapies for substance abuse. American Journal on Addictions, 5, 58–65.Google Scholar
  32. Kosten, T. R., Kleber, H. D., & Morgan, C. (1989). Role of opioid antagonists in treating intravenous cocaine abuse. Life Science, 44, 887–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kosten, T. R., Schottenfeld, R. S., Morgan, C., Falcioni, J., & Ziedonis, D. (1991, June). Buprenorphine vs. methadone for opioid and cocaine dependence. Paper presented to the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, 53rd annual scientific meeting, Palm Beach, FL.Google Scholar
  34. Krystal, J. H., Compere, S., Nestler, E. J., & Rasmussen, K. (1996). Nimodipine reduction of Naltrexone-precipitated locus coeruleus activation and abstinence behavior in morphine-dependent rats. Physiology and Behavior, 52, 863–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Levine, J. D., Gordon, N. C., & Fields, H. L. (1978). The mechanism of placebo analgesia. Lancet, 2, 654–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mains, R. E., Eipper, B. A., & Ling, N. (1977). Common precursor to corticotropins and endorphins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 74,3014–3018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McLellan, A. T., Arndt, I. O., Metzger, D. S., Woody, G. E., & O’Brien, C. P. (1993). The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association,269, 1953–1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Musto, D. (1987). The American disease: Origins of nar- cotic control. New York: Oxford University Press. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings. (1993). 73–74.Google Scholar
  39. Nestler, E. J. (1992). Molecular mechanisms of drug ad- diction. Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 2439–2450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nylander, I., Vlaskovska, M., & Terenius, L. (1995). The effects of morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal on the dynorphin and enkephalin systems in Sprague-Dawley rats. Psychopharmacologv, 118, 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. O’Brien, C. P., & McLellan, A. T. (1996). Myths about the treatment of addiction. Lancet, 347, 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. O’Connor, P. G., Waugh, M. E., Carroll, K. M., Rounsaville, B. J., Diagkogiannis, I. A., & Schottenfeld, R. D. (1995). Primary care-based ambulatory opioid detoxification: The results of a clinical trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 10,255–260. Google Scholar
  43. Pert, C. B., & Snyder, S. H. (1973). Opiate receptor demonstration in nervous tissue. Science, 179, 1011–1014.Google Scholar
  44. Pomeranz, B., & Chiu, D. (1976). Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: Endorphin implicated. Life Science, 19. 1757–1762.Google Scholar
  45. Shippenberg, T. S., & Kubik-Bals, R. (1995). Involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediatint the aversive effects of opioid antagonists in the rat. Behavioral Pharmacology, 6,99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simon, E. J., Hiller, J. M., & Edelman, I. (1973). Stereo-specific binding of the potent narcotic analgesic 3Hetorphine to rat brain homogenate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 70,1947–1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trujillo, K. A., Bronstein, D. M., & Akil, H. (1993). Regulation of opioid peptides by self-administration drugs. In R. P. Hammer, Jr. (Ed.). The neurobiology of opiates (pp. 223–256). Boca Raton, FL: CRC.Google Scholar
  48. Trujillo, K. A., Bronstein, D. M., Sanchez, 1. O., & Akil, H. (1995). Effects of chronic opiate and opioid antagonist treatment on striatal opioid peptides. Brain Research,698, 69–78.Google Scholar
  49. Vereby, K. (1991). Laboratory methods for drug and alcohol addiction. In N. S. Miller, Comprehensive handbook of drug and alcohol addiction (pp. 809–842). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  50. Vereby, K., Gold, M. S., & Mule, S. J. (1986). Laboratory testing in the diagnosis of marijuana intoxication and withdrawal. In M. S. Gold (Ed.), Psychiatric Annals,/6,235–241.Google Scholar
  51. Vining, E., Kosten, T. R., & Kleber, H. D. (1988). Clinical utility of rapid clonidine-naltrexone detoxification for opioid abusers. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 567–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wagner, J. J., & Chavkin, C. I. (1995). Neuropharmacology of endogenous opioid peptides. In F. E. Bloom & D. J. Kupfer, (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: Thefottrth generation of progress (pp. 519–529). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  53. Watson, S., Akil, H., Khachaturian, H., Young, E., & Lewis, M. E. (1984). Opioid systems: Anatomical, physiological and clinical perspectives. In J. Hughes, H. O. Collier, M. J. Rance, & M. B. Tyers (Eds.), Opinids past, present and future (pp. 145–178). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  54. Wei, E., & Loh, H. H. (1976). Physical dependence on opiate-like peptides. Science, 193, 1262–1263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark S. Gold
    • 1
  • Christopher R. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Florida Brain InstituteGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryBaylor UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations