Calibration and Linearization Techniques

  • Gert van der Horn
  • Johan L. Huijsing
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 419)


In the first part of this chapter we will identify and distinguish the different types of errors which affect the transfer of the sensor, and explain which errors can be corrected by calibration. In the following section we will explain different linearization techniques which can be used to calibrate the offset, gain, and linearity errors in the sensor transfer. In the last part we will propose and explain a polynomial calibration method which can be used to calibrate and linearize the sensor transfer in a step-by-step approach. It will be shown how the method can be expanded to a two-dimensional polynomial calibration to be used for calibration of a cross-sensitivity error.


Sensor Output Calibration Coefficient Calibration Measurement Linearization Technique Calibration Step 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J.W. Gardner, Microsensors: principles and applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    W. Gopel, J. Hesse, and J. Zemel, “Sensors: A Comprehensive Study, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and General Aspects”, T. Grandke & W.H. Ko (Vol.eds.), VCH, Weinheim, 1989.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J.H. Huijsing and J.A. van Steenwijk, “A monolithic analog exponential converter”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1980, pp. 162–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.E. Brignell, “Digital compensation of sensors”, Journal of Physics, Vol. E: Scientific Instrumentation, 1987, pp. 1097–1102.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J.E. Brignell, “Software techniques for sensor compensation”, Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 2527, 1991, pp. 29–35.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    P.P.L. Regtien and P.J. Trimp, “Dynamic calibration of sensors using EEPROMs”, Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 21–23, 1990, pp. 615–618.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    P.N. Mahana and F.N. Trofimenkoff, “Transducer output signal processing using an eight-bit microcomputer”, IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. IM35, No. 2, June 1986, pp. 182–186.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    C. de Boor, “A practical guide to splines”, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 27, Springer, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    P. Dierckx, Curve and surface fitting with splines, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    S.B. Crary, W.G. Baer, J.C. Cowles, and K.D. Wise, “Digital compensation of high performance silicon pressure transducers”, Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 2123, 1990, pp. 70–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [l 1]
    S. Huang, R.Z. Morawski, and A. Barwicz, “Static calibration based on superposition of splines in one variable”, Proceedings IMTC’96, June 1996, pp. 49–53.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    C. Berthoud, M. Ansorge, and F. Pellandini, “Effective static response compensation suitable for low-power asic implementation with an application to pressure sensors”, Proceedings IMTC’96, June 1996, pp. 1168–1173.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M.E. Snow and S.B. Crary, “The use of simulated annealing in the I-optimal design of experiments”, Michigan Academician XXIV, 1992, pp. 343–354.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S.B. Crary, L. Hoo, and M. Tennenhouse, “I-Optimality algorithm and implementation”, Computational Statistics, Y. Dodge and J. Whittaker (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th Symposium on Computational Statistics, Vol.2, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1992, pp. 209–213.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    S.R. Ashley, M. Muggeridge, and J. Lucas, “An inexpensive digital linearizer for nonlinear transducers”, Journal of Physics E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 11, 1978, pp. 576–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    W.T. Bolk, “A general digital linearising method for transducers”, Journal of Physics, Vol. E: Scientific Instrumentation, 1985, pp. 61–64.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    D. Patranabis and D. Gosh, “A novel software-based transducer linearizer”, IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 36, No. 6, December 1989.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. Malcovati, C.A. Leme, P. O’Leary, F. Maloberti, and H. Baltes, “Smart sensor interface with A/D conversion and programmable calibration”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 29, No. 8, August 1994, pp. 963–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Yamada and K. Watanabe, “A capacitive pressure sensor interface using oversampling A—Z demodulation techniques”, IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 46, No. 1, February 1997, pp. 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. Gunawan, G.C.M. Meijer, J. Fonderie, and J.H. Huijsing, “A curvature-corrected low-voltage bandgap reference”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1993, pp. 667–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Kaliyugavaradan, P. Sankaran, and V.G.K. Murti, “A new compensation scheme for thermistors and its implementation for response linearization over a wide temperature range”, IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1993, pp. 952–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    S. Kim and K.D. Wise, “Temperature sensitivity in silicon piezoresistive pressure transducers”, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, Vol. ED-38, 1983, pp. 802–810.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    H.-J. Kress, F. Bantien, J. Marek, and M. Willmann, “Silicon pressure sensor with integrated CMOS signal-conditioning circuit and compensation of temperature coefficient”, Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 2527, 1991, pp. 21–26.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Akbar and M.A. Shanblatt, “Temperature compensation of piezoresistive pressure sensors”, Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 33, 1992, pp. 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    K.F. Lyahou, G. v.d. Horn, and J.H. Huijsing, “A non-iterative polynomial 2-dimensional calibration method implemented in a microcontroller”, Proceedings IMTC’96, June 1996, pp. 62–67.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    G. v.d. Horn and J.H. Huijsing, “Integrated smart sensor calibration”, J. Integrated Analog Circuits and Signal Processing, Vol. 14, No. 3, November 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gert van der Horn
    • 1
  • Johan L. Huijsing
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations