Picking Up The Pieces: Botanical Conservation on Degraded Oceanic Islands

  • Mike Maunder
  • Alastair Culham
  • Clare Hankamer
Chapter

Abstract

Historical debates about environmental degradation on oceanic islands acted as crucibles for the evolution of modern conservation thought (Grove 1995). These largely colonial debates recognized the link between forest loss and watershed decline and the possibility that habitat loss can result in species loss. Currently, oceanic islands are manifesting very high levels of extinction that demand urgent and innovative approaches to conservation. The Chapaudigms established for continental areas, based primarily on the establishment of protected areas, are not sufficient to ensure the survival of the highly modified biotas and ecologies of many oceanic islands. On such islands the habitats prior to human colonization are largely destroyed, the original ecological processes lost or diverted, and the populations of endemic taxa severely reduced and fragmented. To salvage endemic species and their ecologies, habitat conservation needs to be matched with intensive species management and habitat restoration.

Keywords

Cucumber Mosaic Virus Botanic Garden Ecological Restoration Habitat Degradation Royal Botanic Garden 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Aldén, B. and G. Zizka. 1989. Der Toromiro (Sophora toromiro) eine ausgestorbene Pflanze wird wiederentdeckt. Natur und Museum 119:145–152.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. 1987. Hawaii Department of Agriculture, Annual Report. Hawaii, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. 1992. The alien pest species invasion in Hawaii: background study and recommendations for interagency planning. The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii and Natural Resources Defense Council.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, I.A.E. 1990. Ecological restoration on islands: Prerequisites for success. In Ecological restoration of New Zealand Islands, Conservation Sciences Publication No. 2, eds. D.R. Towns, C.H. Daugherty, and I.A.E. Atkinson, 73–90. Wellington: Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  5. Bahn, P. and J. Flenley. 1992. Easter Island earth island. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, K. and S. Allen. 1976. Studies on the endemic Hawaiian genus Hibiscadelphus (Haukauahiwi). Proceedings from the First Conference in Natural Sciences, 19–22. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin, B.G., D.W. Kyhos, and J. Dvorak. 1990. Chloroplast DNA evolution and adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silver sword alliance (Asteraceae-Madiinae). Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 77:96–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balmford, A. 1996. Extinction filters and current resilience: The significance of past selection pressures for conservation biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bass, S. and B. Dalai-Clayton. 1995. Small Island States and Sustainable Development: Strategic Issues and Experience, 3, Environmental Planning Issues, No 8, Environmental Planning Group, London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  10. Bouchet, P., T. Jaffre, and J.M. Veillon. 1995. Plant extinction in New Caledonia: Protection of the sclerophyll forests urgently needed. Biodiversity and Conservation 4:415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bramwell, D. 1990. Conserving Biodiversity in the Canary Islands. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 77:28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandon, K. 1996. Ecotourism and conservation: a review of key issues, Environment Department Papers, Biodiversity Series, Global Environment Division, Discussion Paper, World Bank.Google Scholar
  13. Brochmann, C. 1984. Hybridization and distribution of Argyranthemum coronopifolium (Asteraceae-Anthemidae) in the Canary Islands. Nordic Journal of Botany 4:729–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Broodbank, C. and T.F. Strasser. 1991. Migrant farmers and the Neolithic colonisation of Crete. Antiquity 65:233–245.Google Scholar
  15. Brookfield, H.C. 1985. Problems of monoculture and diversification in a sugar island: Mauritius. Economic Geography 34:25–40.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, S. and A.E. Lugo. 1994. Rehabilitation of tropical lands: A key to sustaining development. Restoration Ecology 2:97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Center for Plant Conservation (CPC). 1994. An action plan for conserving Hawaiian plant diversity. Missouri: Center for Plant Conservation.Google Scholar
  18. Charters, Y.M., A. Robertson, M.J. Wilkinson, and G. Ramsay. 1996. PCR analysis of oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) using 5′ anchored simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 92:442–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheke, A.S. 1987. An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates. In Studies of Mascarene Island Birds, ed. A.W. Diamond, 5–89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christensen, S.S. and G. Schlatzer. 1993. Comments on the conservation of Sophora toromiro Skottsb., from Rapa Nui. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 2:22–25.Google Scholar
  21. Coccossis, H.N. 1987. Planning for islands. Ekistics, 323/324, March/April-May/June, 84–87.Google Scholar
  22. Cronk, Q.C.B. 1980. Extinction and survival in the endemic vascular flora of Ascension Island. Biological Conservation 17:207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cuddihy, L.W. and C.P. Stone. 1990. Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation: Effects of humans, their activities and introductions. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dalai-Clayton, B., S. Bass, B. Sadler, K. Thomson, R. Sandbrook, N. Robins, and R. Hughes. 1994. National Sustainable Development Strategies: Experience and Dilemmas, Environmental Planning Issues. No. 6, Environmental Planning Group. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  25. Davidson, S., G.C. Teleki, and B. Lamb. 1988. Caribbean environmental programming strategy, final report: volume 3, background information. Quebec: Canadian International Development Agency.Google Scholar
  26. Davis, S.D., V.H. Heywood, and A.C. Hamilton, eds. 1994. Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation, volume 1, Europe, Africa, South West Asia and the Middle East. Oxford: WWF and IUCN, IUCN Publications Unit.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, S.D., V.H. Heywood, and A.C. Hamilton, eds. 1995. Centres of plant diversity: A guide and strategy for their conservation, volume 2, Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. Oxford: WWF and IUCN, IUCN Publications Unit.Google Scholar
  28. D’Antonio, C.M. and T.L. Dudley. 1995. Biological invasions as agents of change on islands versus mainlands. In Islands: Biological diversity and ecosystem function, Ecological Studies 115, eds. P.M. Vitousek, L.L. Loope, and H. Andersen, 103–121. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  29. Diamond, J. 1986. The environmentalist myth. Nature (London) 324:19–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duffey, E. 1964. The terrestrial ecology of Ascension Island. Journal of Applied Ecology 1:219–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eliasson, U. 1995. Patterns of Diversity in Island Plants. In Islands: Biological diversity and ecosystem function, Ecological Studies 115, eds. P.M. Vitousek, L.L. Loope, and H. Andersen, 36–41. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  32. Fa, J.E. 1991. Conservación de los ecosistemas forestales de Guinea Ecuatorial, Gland and Cambridge: IUCN.Google Scholar
  33. Falk, D.A. and P. Olwell. 1992. Scientific and policy considerations in restoration and reintroduction of endangered species. Rhodora 94:287–315.Google Scholar
  34. Figueiredo, E. 1994. Diversity and endemism of angiosperms in the Gulf of Guinea islands. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:785–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Flenley, J.R., A.S.M. King, J. Jackson, C. Chew, J. Teller, and M.E. Prentice. 1991. The late Quaternary vegetation and climatic history of Easter Island. Journal of Quaternary Science 6:85–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowler, S. 1993. Report on a visit to St. Helena: 6–25th June, 1993. Unpublished report. Silwood Park, UK: International Institute of Biological Control.Google Scholar
  37. Gade, D.W. 1985. Man and nature on Rodrigues, tragedy of an island commons. Environmental Conservation 12:207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilmer, K. and J.W. Kadereit. 1989. The biology and affinities of Senecio teneriffae Schultz Bip., an annual endemic from the Canary Islands. Botanische Jahrbuch 11:263–273.Google Scholar
  39. Gioda, A., J. Maley, R.E. Guasp, and A.A. Baladón. 1995. Some low elevation fog forest of dry environments: applications to African paleoenvironments. In Tropical montane cloud forests, Ecological Studies 110, eds. L.S. Hamilton, J.O. Juvik, and F.N. Scatena, 156–163. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grove, R.H. 1995. Green imperialism: Colonial expansion, tropical island edens, and the origins of environmentalism 1600–1860, 24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton, S.L., J.O. Juvik, and F.N. Scatena. 1995. The Puerto Rico Tropical Cloud Forest Symposium: Introduction and Workshop Synthesis. In Tropical montane cloud forests, Ecological Studies 110, eds. L.S. Hamilton, J.O. Juvik, and F.N. Scatena, 1–23. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hooker, J. D. 1902. Echium wildpretii. Curtis Botanical Magazine 128:Tab 7847.Google Scholar
  43. Humphries, C.J. 1976. Evolution and endemism in Argyranthemum Webb ex Schultz Bip. (Compositae-Anthemidae). Botanica Macaronesia 1:25–50.Google Scholar
  44. Humphries, C.J. 1979. Endemism and Evolution in Macaronesia. In Plants and islands, ed. D. Bramwell, 171–199. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ishwaran, N. 1993. Protected Areas and Sustainable Development in Small Islands. Insula 2:31–33.Google Scholar
  46. IUCN 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Gland: IUCN Species Survival Commission.Google Scholar
  47. Janzen, D.H. 1986. The future of tropical ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic s 17:305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, S.P. (Series ed.). 1993. The earth summit: The United Nations conference on environment and development (UNCED), International Environmental Law and Policy Series, 125–503. London: Graham & Trotman/Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  49. Jones, C. and J. Hartley. 1995. A Conservation project on Mauritius and Rodrigues: An overview and bibliography. Dodo 31:40–65.Google Scholar
  50. Krogstrup, P., J.V. Norgaard, and O. Hamman. 1990. Micropropagation of threatened endemic and indigenous plant species from the island of Rodrigues. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1:8–11.Google Scholar
  51. Levin, D.A., J.F. Ortega, and R.K. Jansen. 1996. Hybridization and the extinction of rare plant species. Conservation Biology 10:10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liston, A., L.H. Rieseberg, and O. Mistretta. 1990. Ribosomal evidence for hybridization between island endemics of Lotus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 18:239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lobin, W. and W. Barthlott. 1988. Sophora toromiro (Leguminosae); the lost tree of Easter Island. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1:32–34.Google Scholar
  54. Loope, L.L. 1995. Climate change and island biological diversity. In Islands: Biological diversity and ecosystem function, Ecological Studies 115, eds. P.M. Vitousek, L.L. Loope, and H. Andersen, 123–132. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  55. Loope, L.L. and A.C. Medeiros. 1994. Impacts of biological invasions on the management and recovery of rare plants, in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. In Restoration of endangered species: Conceptual issues, planning and implementation, eds. M.L. Bowles and C.J. Whelan, 139–142. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lugo, A.E., J. Parrotta, and S. Brown. 1993. Loss in species caused by tropical deforestation and their recovery through management. Ambio 22:106–109.Google Scholar
  57. Maunder, M. 1992. Plant reintroductions: an overview. Biodiversity and Conservation 1:51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maunder, M., ed. 1995a. Report of the meeting of the Toromiro Management Group. October 1994, at University of Bonn Botanischer Garten. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Conservation Projects Development Unit.Google Scholar
  59. Maunder, M. 1995b. Endemic plants: Options for an integrated conservation strategy. An unpublished report submitted to the Overseas Development Administration and the Government of St. Helena. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Conservation Projects Development Unit.Google Scholar
  60. Maunder, M. and A. Culham. 1997. Practical aspects of threatened species management, Genetic aspects of conserving small populations, York Conference, British Ecological Society [in press].Google Scholar
  61. Maunder, M., U.S. Seal, A. Culham, and P. Pearce-Kelly. 1994. Conservation assessment and management plan for St. Helena. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 2:44–48.Google Scholar
  62. Maunder, M., T. Upson, B. Spooner, and T. Kendle. 1995. Saint Helena: Sustainable development and conservation of a highly degraded island ecosystem. In Islands: Biological diversity and ecological function, Ecological Studies 115, eds. P.M. Vitousek, L.L. Loope, and H. Andersen, 205–217. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  63. McNeely, J.A., M. Gadgil, C. Levèque, C. Padoch, and K. Redford. 1995. Human influences on biodiversity. In Global biodiversity assessment, UNEP, eds. V.H. Heywood and R.T. Watson, 782. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Melliss, J.C. 1875. St. Helena: A physical, historical and topographical description of the island, including its geology, fauna, flora and meteorology. London: L. Reeve and Co.Google Scholar
  65. Miller, K. and S.M. Manou. 1995. National biodiversity planning. Washington D.C., Nairobi, Gland: World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme and the World Conservation Union.Google Scholar
  66. Mueller-Dombois, D. 1981. Island Ecosystems: What is unique about their ecology? In Island ecosystems: biological organization in selected Hawaiian communities, US/IBP Synthesis Series 15, eds. D. Mueller-Dombois, K.W. Bridges, and H.L. Carson, 485–501. Pennsylvania: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  67. Mueller-Dombois, D. and L.L. Loope. 1990. Some unique ecological aspects of oceanic island ecosystems. In Botanical research and management in Galápagos, Proceedings of the Workshop on Botanical Research and Management in Galápagos, 11–18 April, 1987, eds. J.E. Lawesson, O. Hamann, G. Rogers, G. Reck, and H. Ochoa. Monographs in Systematic Botany-Mis souri Botanical Garden 32:21–27.Google Scholar
  68. North, S.G., D.J. Bullock, and M.E. Dulloo. 1994. Changes in the vegetation and reptile populations on Round Island, Mauritius, following eradication of rabbits. Biological Conservation 67:21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. O’Rourke, P.J. 1994. All the trouble in the world: The lighter side of famine, pestilence, destruction and death, 162. London: Picador.Google Scholar
  70. Ortega, J.F., R.K. Jansen, and A. Santos-Guerra. 1996. Chloroplast DNA evidence of colonization, adaptive radiation, and hybridization in the evolution of the Macaronesian flora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93:4085–4090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Owadally, A.W., M.E. Dulloo, and W. Strahm. 1991. Measures that are required to help conserve the flora of Mauritius and Rodrigues in ex situ collections. In Tropical botanic gardens: their role in conservation and development, eds. V.H. Heywood and P.W. Wyse-Jackson, 95–117. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Owens, S.J., A. Jackson, M. Maunder, P. Rudall, and M. Johnson. 1993. The breeding system of Ramosmania heterophylla—dioecy or heterostyly? Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 113:77–86.Google Scholar
  73. Page, W. and M. Maunder. 1997. A conservation review of the Mascarene palms. Principes. In press.Google Scholar
  74. Perez, G.V. 1912a. Echium pininana. Revue Horticole, pp. 350–351.Google Scholar
  75. Perez, G.V. 1912b. Les Echium des Iles Canaries. Revue Horticole, pp. 440–442.Google Scholar
  76. Ray, G.J. and B.J. Brown. 1994. Seed ecology of woody species in a Caribbean dry forest. Restoration Ecology 2:156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rieseberg, L.H. and D. Gerber. 1995. Hybridization in the Catalina Island mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus traskiae): RAPD evidence. Conservation Biology 9:199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rieseberg, L.H. and S.M. Swensen. 1996. Conservation genetics of endangered island plants. In Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, eds. J.C. Avise and J.L. Hamrick, 305–334. New York: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  79. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in association with International Institute for Environment and Development. 1993. Report on the sustainable environment and development strategy and action plan for St. Helena. Under assignment from the Overseas Development Administration for the Government of St. Helena.Google Scholar
  80. Salas-Pascual, M., J.R. Acebes-Ginoves, and M. Del Arco-Aguilar. 1993. Arbutus x androsterilis, a new interspecific hybrid between A. canadensis and A. unedo from the Canary Islands. Taxon 42:789–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schüle, W. 1993. Mammals, vegetation and the initial human settlement of the Mediterranean islands: A palaeoecological approach. Journal of Biogeography 20:399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith D. and N. Williams. 1996. Diana’ s Peak National Park of St. Helena, The Management Plan for 1996–2001, Agriculture and Forestry Department, unpublished report.Google Scholar
  83. Stoddardt, D.R. and R.P.D. Walsh. 1992. Environmental variability and environmental extremes as factors in the island ecosystem. Atoll Research Bulletin 356:1–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Strahm, W. 1983. Rodrigues—can its flora be saved? Oryx 17:122–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Strahm, W. 1989. Plant Red Data Book for Rodrigues. Konigstein: IUCN/Koeltz Scientific Books.Google Scholar
  86. Strahm, W. 1994. Regional Overview: Indian Ocean Islands. In Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation, Volume 1, Europe, Africa, South West Asia and the Middle East, eds. S.D. Davis, V.H. Heywood, and A.C. Hamilton, 265–270. Oxford: WWF and IUCN, IUCN Publications Unit.Google Scholar
  87. Synge, H. 1992. Threatened species on islands: Plants. In Global biodiversity: status of the Earth’s living resources, A report compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in collaboration with The Natural History Museum London, IUCN, UNEP, WWF and WRI, ed. B. Groom-bridge, 244–245. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  88. Thomson, A.D. 1981. New plant disease record in New Zealand: Cucumber mosaic virus in Myosotidium hortensia. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 24:401–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Towns, D.R., C.H. Daugherty, and I.A.E. Atkinson, eds. 1990. Ecological restoration of New Zealand islands, Conservation Sciences Publication No. 2, Wellington: Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  90. UNCED. 1992. Agenda 27, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), United Nations General Assembly, New York.Google Scholar
  91. UNESCO. 1994. Report of the global conference on the sustainable development of small island developing states, Chapter IX, Biodiversity Resources, 28. Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994.Google Scholar
  92. Upson, T. and M. Maunder. 1993. Status of the endemic flora and preliminary recovery programmes, Volume 3. In Report on sustainable environment and development strategy and action plan for St. Helena, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in association with International Institute for Environment and Development under assignment from the Overseas Development Administration for the Government of St. Helena.Google Scholar
  93. United States Office of Technology Assessment. 1993. Harmful non-indigenous species in the United States. Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  94. Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, and C.P. Stone. 1987. Introduced species in Hawaii: Biological effects and opportunities for ecological research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:224–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Watts, D. 1987. The West Indies: Patterns of development, culture and environmental change since 1492. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Welsh, J. and M. McClelland. 1990. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Research 18:7213–7218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, J.G.K., A.R. Kubelik, K.J. Livak, J.A. Rafalski, and S.V. Tingey. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Research 18:6531–6535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams, M. and B. Macdonald. 1985. The Phosphateers. Victoria: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Wingate, D.B. 1985. The restoration of Nonsuch Island as a living museum of Bermuda’s precolonial terrestrial biome. ICBP Technical Publication No. 3, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  100. Zizka, G. 1991. Flowering plants of Easter Island, Scientific Reports and Research Activities, Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis, 3, Frankfurt: Palmengarten.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mike Maunder
  • Alastair Culham
  • Clare Hankamer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations