Critical Issues in Invasion Biology for Conservation Science

  • Ingrid M. Parker
  • Sarah H. Reichard


Modern conservation biology had its origins in the management of game species and later of rare species, focusing attention on understanding the biological origins and causes of population decline, rarity, and endangerment. But while anthropogenic global change has resulted in the decline of some species, others have thrived and proliferated, accompanied by sometimes dramatic impacts on both single populations and whole ecosystems (Office of Technology Assessment 1993). Although some have long recognized invasive, non-native species as a force capable of irreversibly transforming the natural world (Elton 1958; Baker 1965), these scientists were in large part acting in isolation from those doing traditional conservation biology. In fact, even recent books on conservation biology often include only a cursory treatment, if any, of the problem of nonnative species (e.g., Soulé 1986; Fiedler and Jain 1992; Given 1994; Jordan 1995).


Native Species Biological Invasion Conservation Biology Ecological Restoration Biotic Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbott, R.J. 1992. Plant invasions, interspecific hybridization and the evolution of new plant taxa. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:401–405.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, L.J.S., E.J. Allen, C.R.G. Kunst, and R.E. Sosebee. 1991. A diffusion model for dispersal of Opuntia imbucata (cholla) on rangeland. Journal of Ecology 79:1123–1135.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, R.B. 1991. A preliminary assessment of the establishment and persistence of Berberis darwinii Hook., a naturalised shrub in secondary vegetation near Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29:353–360.Google Scholar
  4. Allison, G.W. 1996. Does high diversity facilitate or suppress species invasions? Some lessons from a diversity manipulation and reintroductions. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77:9.Google Scholar
  5. Ammerman, A.J. and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza. 1984. The neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Andow, D., P. Kareiva, S.A. Levin, and A. Okubo. 1990. Spread of invading organisms. Landscape Ecology 4:177–188.Google Scholar
  7. Andow, D.A., P.M. Kareiva, S.A. Levin, and A. Okubo. 1993. Spread of invading organisms: patterns of spread. In Evolution of insect pests: patterns of variation, eds. K. Kim and B.A. McPheron, 219–242. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  8. Auld, B.A. and B.G. Coote. 1980. A model of a spreading plant population. Oikos 34:287–292.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, H.G. 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In The genetics of colonizing species, eds. H.G. Baker and G.L. Stebbins, 147–168. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Beatty, S.W. and D.L. Licari. 1992. Invasion of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) into shrub communities on Santa Cruz Island, California. Madrono 39:54–66.Google Scholar
  11. Bergelson, J. and M. Crawley. 1989. Can we expect mathematical models to guide biological control programs?: A comment based on case studies of weed control. Comments on Theoretical Biology 1:197–216.Google Scholar
  12. Blackburn, W., R.W. Knight, and J.L. Schuster. 1982. Saltcedar influence of sedimentation in the Brazos River. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 37:298–230.Google Scholar
  13. Bock, J.H. and C.E. Bock. 1992. Vegetation responses to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science 3:439–446.Google Scholar
  14. Bossard, C.C. 1990. Secrets of an ecological interloper: Ecological studies on Cytisus scoparius in California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  15. Breytenbach, G.J. 1986. Impacts of alien organisms on terrestrial communities with emphasis on communities of the south-western Cape. In The ecology and management of biological invasions in South Africa, eds. I.A.W. MacDonald, F.J. Kruger, and A.A. Ferrar, 229–238. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bruce, K.A., G.N. Cameron, and P.A. Harcombe. 1995. Initiation of a new woodland type on the Texas coastal prairie by the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 122:215–225.Google Scholar
  17. Burdon, J.J. and G.A. Chilvers. 1994. Demographic changes and the development of competition in a native Australian eucalypt forest invaded by exotic pines. Oecologia 97:419–423.Google Scholar
  18. Burgess, T.L., J.E. Bowers, and R.M. Turner. 1991. Exotic plants at the desert laboratory, Tuscon, Arizona. Madrono 38:96–114.Google Scholar
  19. Carman, J.G. and J.D. Brotherson. 1982. Comparison of sites infested and not infested with saltcedar (Tamarix pentandra) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Weed Science 30:360–364.Google Scholar
  20. Case, T.J. 1990. Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97:9610–9614.Google Scholar
  21. Case, T.J. 1991. Invasion resistance, species build-up and community collapse in metapopulation models with interspecies competition. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42:239–266.Google Scholar
  22. Caughley, G. 1970. Liberation, dispersal and distribution of Himalayan thar (Hemitragus jemlahicus) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 13:220–239.Google Scholar
  23. Connell, J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310.Google Scholar
  24. Cowrie, I.D. and P.A. Werner. 1993. Alien plant species invasive in Kakadu National Park, tropical northern Australia. Biological Conservation 63:127–135.Google Scholar
  25. Crawley, M.J. 1986. The population biology of invaders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 314:711–731.Google Scholar
  26. Crawley, M.J. 1989. Chance and timing in biological invasions. In Biological invasions: A global perspective, eds. J.A. Drake, H.A. Mooney, F. d. Castri, R.H. Groves, F.J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek and M. Williamson, 407–423. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  27. D’Antonio, C.M. 1993. Mechanisms controlling invasion of coastal plant communities by the alien succulent Carpobrotus edulis. Ecology 74:83–95.Google Scholar
  28. D’Antonio, C.M. and P.M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:63–87.Google Scholar
  29. De Pietri, D.E. 1992. Alien shrubs in a national park: can they help in the recovery of natural degraded forest? Biological Conservation 62:127–130.Google Scholar
  30. Dillenburg, L.R., D.F. Whigham, A.H. Teramura, and I.N. Forseth. 1993. Effects of below- and aboveground competition from the vine Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia on the growth of the tree host Liquidambar styraciflua. Oecologica 93:48–54.Google Scholar
  31. Di Tommaso, A. and L.W. Aarssen. 1991. Effect of nutrient level on competition intensity in the field for three coexisting grass species. Journal of Vegetation Science 2:513–522.Google Scholar
  32. Drake, J.A. 1983. Invasibility in Lotka-Volterra interaction webs. In Current trends in food web theory, eds. D. DeAngelis, W.M. Post, and G. Sugihara, 83–90. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratories.Google Scholar
  33. Drake, J.A. 1988. Models of community assembly and the structure of ecological landscapes. In Proceedings of the international conference on mathematical ecology, eds. L. Gross, T. Hallam, and S. Levin, 585–604. Singapore: World Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dritschilo, W., D.E. Carpenter, J.L. Hastings, O. Meyn, D. Moss, and M.N. Weinstein. 1985. Implications of data on introduced species in California for field releases of recombinant DNA organisms. Los Angeles: School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  35. Elton, C.S. 1958. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  36. Fiedler, P.L. and S.K. Jain, eds. 1992. Conservation biology: The theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation, and management. New York: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Fisher, R.A. 1937. The wave of advance of advantageous genes. Annals of the Eugenics Society (London) 7:355–369.Google Scholar
  38. Forcella, F. and J. Wood. 1984. Colonization potentials of alien weeds are related to their native distributions: implications for plant quarantine. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science XX:35–41.Google Scholar
  39. Fowler, N. 1986. The role of competition in plant communities in arid and semi-arid regions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic s 17:89–110.Google Scholar
  40. Fox, M.D. and B.J. Fox. 1986. The susceptibility of natural communities to invasion. In Ecology of biological invasions: an Australian perspective, eds. R.H. Groves and J.J. Burdon, 57–66. Canberra: Australian Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  41. Gaudet, C.L. and P.A. Keddy. 1995. Competition performance and species distribution in shoreline plant communities, a comChapautive approach. Ecology 76:280–291.Google Scholar
  42. Gerry, A.K. and S.D. Wilson. 1995. The influence of initial size on the competitive responses of six plant species. Ecology 76:272–279.Google Scholar
  43. Given, D.R. 1994. Principles and practice of plant conservation. Portland: Timber Press.Google Scholar
  44. Goldwasser, L., J. Cook, and E.D. Silverman. 1994. The effects of variability on metapopulation dynamics and rates of invasion. Ecology 75:40–47.Google Scholar
  45. Goodwin, J. 1992. The role of mycorrhizal fungi in competitive interactions among native bunchgrasses and alien weeds: A review and synthesis. Northwest Science 66:251–260.Google Scholar
  46. Hardin, D.P., P. Takac, and G.F. Webb. 1990. Dispersion population models discrete in time and continuous in space. Journal of Mathematical Biology 28:1–20.Google Scholar
  47. Hedgpeth, J. 1993. Foreign invaders. Science 261:34–35.Google Scholar
  48. Hengeveld, R. 1989. Dynamics of ecological invasions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hester, A.J. and R.J. Hobbs. 1992. Influence of fire and soil nutrients on native and non-native annuals at remnant vegetation edges in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Journal of Vegetation Science 3:101–108.Google Scholar
  50. Hobbs, R.J. 1989. The nature and effects of disturbance relative to invasions. In Biological invasions: a global perspective, eds. J.A. Drake, H.A. Mooney, F. d. Castri, R.H. Groves, F.J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson, 389–405. New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  51. Hobbs, R.J. and L. Atkins. 1991. Interactions between annuals and woody perennials in western Australian nature reserves. Journal of Vegetation Science 2:643–654.Google Scholar
  52. Hobbs, R.J. and L.F. Huenneke. 1992. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: Implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 6:324–337.Google Scholar
  53. Holmes, E.E. 1993. Are diffusion models too simple? A comparison with telegraph models of invasion. The American Naturalist 142:779–795.Google Scholar
  54. Horton, J.S. 1977. The development and perpetuation of the permanent tamarisk type in thephreatophyte zone of the Southwest. General Technical Report, U.S.D.A.Google Scholar
  55. Huenneke, L.F., S.P. Hamburg, R. Korste, H.A. Mooney, and P.M. Vitousek. 1990. Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71:478–491.Google Scholar
  56. Huenneke, L.F. and J.K. Thomson. 1994. Potential interference between a threatened endemic thistle and an invasive nonnative plant. Conservation Biology 9:416–425.Google Scholar
  57. Hughes, F., P.M. Vitousek and T. Tunison. 1991. Alien grass invasion and fire in the seasonal submontane zone of Hawaii. Ecology 72:743–746.Google Scholar
  58. Jackson, L.E. 1985. Ecological origins of California’s Mediterranean grasses. Journal of Biogeography 12:349–361.Google Scholar
  59. Johnson, A.P. 1994. Coastal impacts of non-indigenous species. In An assessment of invasive, non-indigenous species in Florida’s public lands, eds. D.C. Schmitz and T.C. Brown, 119–126. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of Environmental Protection.Google Scholar
  60. Jones, R.H. 1993. Influence of soil temperature on root competition in seedlings of Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua and Sapium sebiferum. American Midland Naturalist 130:116–126.Google Scholar
  61. Jordan, C.F. 1995. Conservation. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  62. Kareiva, P., M.J. Groom, I.M. Parker, and J. Ruesink. 1991. Risk analysis as a tool for making decisions about the introduction of non-indigenous species into the United States. Washington D.C.: United States Office of Technology Assessment.Google Scholar
  63. Kareiva, P., I.M. Parker, and M. Pascual. 1996. Can we use experiments and models in predicting the invasiveness of genetically engineered organisms? Ecology 77:1670–1675.Google Scholar
  64. Knops, J.M.H., J.R. Griffin, and A.C. Royalty. 1995. Introduced and native plants of the Hastings Reservation, central coastal California: A comparison. Biological Conservation 71:115–123.Google Scholar
  65. Kot, M. 1992. Discrete-time travelling waves: Ecological examples. Journal of Mathematical Biology 30:413–436.Google Scholar
  66. Kot, M., M.A. Lewis, and P. van den Driessche. In press. Dispersal data and the spread of invading organisms. Google Scholar
  67. Kot, M. and W.M. Schaffer. 1986. Discrete-time growth-dispersal models. Mathematical Biosciences 80:109–136.Google Scholar
  68. LaRoe, E.T. 1993. Implementation of an ecosystem approach to endangered species conservation. Endangered Species Update 10:3–12.Google Scholar
  69. Lawton, J. and K. Brown. 1986. The population and community ecology of invading insects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 314:607–617.Google Scholar
  70. Lewis, M. 1997. Invasion and the importance of rare long-distance dispersal events. In Spatial processes in ecology, eds. D. Tilman and P. Kareiva. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lewis, M.A. and P. Kareiva. 1993. Allee dynamics and the spread of invading organisms. Theoretical Population Biology 43:141–158.Google Scholar
  72. Lonsdale, W.M. 1993. Rates of spread of an invading species—Mimosa pigra in northern Australia. Journal of Ecology 81:513–521.Google Scholar
  73. Lubina, J.A. and S.A. Levin. 1988. The spread of a reinvading species: Range expansion of the California sea otter. American Naturalist 133:526–543.Google Scholar
  74. McClaran, M.P. and M.E. Anable. 1992. Spread of introduced Lehmann lovegrass along a grazing intensity gradient. Journal of Applied Ecology 29:92–98.Google Scholar
  75. Melgoza, G., R.S. Nowak, and R.J. Tausch. 1990. Soil water exploitation after fire: Competition between Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and two native species. Oecologia 83:7–13.Google Scholar
  76. Mesléard, F., L.T. Ham, V. Boy, C. van Wijck, and P. Grillas. 1993. Competition between an introduced and an indigenous species: The case of Paspalum paspalodes (Michx) Schribner and Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) in the Camargue (southern France). Oecologia 94:204–209.Google Scholar
  77. Moody, M.E. and R.N. Mack. 1988. Controlling the spread of plant invasions: The importance of nacent foci. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:1009–1021.Google Scholar
  78. Moulton, M. and S. Pimm. 1986. Species introduction to Hawaii. In Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii, eds. H.A. Mooney and J.A. Drake, 231–249. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  79. Moulton, M.P. and S.L. Pimm. 1983. The introduced Hawaiian avifauna: Biogeographic evidence for competition. American Naturalist 121:669–690.Google Scholar
  80. Neill, W. 1983. The tamarisk invasion of desert riparian areas. Educational Bulletin of the Desert Protective Council, vol. 83–84. Spring Valley, CA: Educational Foundation of the Desert Protective Council.Google Scholar
  81. Office of Technology Assessment. 1993. Harmful non-indigenous species in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress.Google Scholar
  82. Okubo, A. 1988. Diffusion-type models for avian range expansion. In Acta XIX congressis internationalis ornithologici. 1, ed. H. Ouellet, 1038–1049. Ottowa, Canada: University of Ottowa Press.Google Scholar
  83. Okubo, A., P.K. Maini, M.H. Williamson, and J.D. Murray. 1989. On the spatial spread of the grey squirrel in Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 23:113–125.Google Scholar
  84. Olson, T.E. and F.L. Knopf. 1986. Agency subsidization of a rapidly spreading exotic. Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:492–493.Google Scholar
  85. Orians, G.H. 1986. Site characteristics favoring invasions. In Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii, eds. H.A. Mooney and J.A. Drake, 133–148. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  86. Pablo, A.P. and J.L. Vasquez. 1991. Travelling waves and finite propagation in a reaction-diffusion equation. Journal of Differential Equations 93:19–61.Google Scholar
  87. Parker, I.M. 1996. Ecological factors affecting rates of population growth and spread in Cytisus scoparius, an invasive exotic shrub. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  88. Parker, I.M. and P. Kareiva. 1996. Assessing the risks of genetically engineered organisms: Acceptable evidence and reasonable doubt. Biological Conservation 78:193–203.Google Scholar
  89. Parker, I.M., S.K. Mertens, and D.W. Schemske. 1993. Distribution of seven native and two exotic plants in a tallgrass prairie in southeastern Wisconsin: The importance of human disturbance. The American Midland Naturalist 130:43–55.Google Scholar
  90. Perrins, J., M. Williamson, and A. Fitter. 1992. A survey of differing views of weed classification: Implications for regulation of introductions. Biological Conservation 60:47–56.Google Scholar
  91. Pimentel, D. 1986. Biological invasions of plants and animals in agriculture and forestry. In Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii, eds. H.A. Mooney and J.A. Drake, 149–162. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  92. Planty-Tabacchi, A., E. Tabacchi, R.J. Naiman, C. Deferrari, and H. Décamps. 1996. Invasibility of species-rich communities in riparian zones. Conservation Biology 10:598–607.Google Scholar
  93. Post, W.M. and S.L. Pimm. 1983. Community assembly and food web stability. Mathematical Biosciences 64:169–192.Google Scholar
  94. Reichard, S. 1996. Biogeographic and taxonomic patterns in the invasive and non-invasive flora of Hawaii. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77:371.Google Scholar
  95. Reichard, S. and F. Campbell. 1996. Invited but unwanted. American Nurseryman 184:39–45.Google Scholar
  96. Reichard, S.E. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced to North America. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  97. Reichard, S.H. and K. Hamilton. In press. Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America. Conservation Biology. Google Scholar
  98. Rejmánek, M. and D.M. Richardson. 1996. What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661.Google Scholar
  99. Robinson, G.R., J.F. Quinn, and M.L. Stanton. 1995. Invasibility of experimental habitat islands in a California winter annual grassland. Ecology 76:786–794.Google Scholar
  100. Robinson, G.R., M.E. Yurlina, and S.N. Handel. 1994. A century of change in the Staten Island flora: ecological correlates of species losses and invasions. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 121:119–129.Google Scholar
  101. Sallabanks, R. 1993. Fruiting plant attractiveness to avian seed dispersers: Native vs. invasive Crataegus in western Oregon. Madrono 40:108–116.Google Scholar
  102. Seileck, G.W., R.T. Coupland, and C. Frankton. 1962. Leafy spurge in Saskatchewan. Ecological Monographs 32:1–29.Google Scholar
  103. Shafroth, P.B., G.T. Auble, and M.L. Scott. 1995. Germination and establishment of the native plants cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. moniliferd) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Biological Conservation 9:1169–1175.Google Scholar
  104. Shigesada, N., K. Kawasaki, and E. Teramoto. 1986. Traveling periodic waves in heterogeneous environments. Theoretical Population Biology 30:143–160.Google Scholar
  105. Simberloff, D. 1981. Community effects of introduced species. In Biotic crises in ecological and evolutionary time, ed. M.H. Nitecki, 53–81. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  106. Simberloff, D. 1986. Introduced insects: A biogeographic and systematic perspective. In Ecology of Biological Invasions of North American and Hawaii, eds. Mooney, H.A. and J.A. Drake, 3–26. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  107. Simberloff, D. 1989. Which insect introductions succeed and which fail? In Biological invasions: A global perspective, eds. J.A. Drake, H.A. Mooney, F.D. Castri, R.H. Groves, F.J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson, 61–75. New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  108. Simberloff, D. and W. Boecklen. 1991. Patterns of extinction in the introduced Hawaiian avifauna: A reexamination of the role of competition. The American Naturalist 138:300–327.Google Scholar
  109. Skellam, J. 1951. Random dispersal in theoretical populations. Biometrika 38:196–218.Google Scholar
  110. Soulé, M.E., ed. 1986. Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  111. Stace, C.A. 1991. New flora of the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Stock, W.D., K.T. Wienand, and A.C. Baker. 1995. Impacts of invading N2-fixing Acacia species on patterns of nutrient cycling in two Cape ecosystems: Evidence from soil incubation studies and 15N natural abundance values. Oecologia 101:375–382.Google Scholar
  113. Temple, S.A. 1990. The nasty necessity: Eradicating exotics. Conservation Biology 4:113–114.Google Scholar
  114. Thompson, J.D. 1991. The biology of an invasive plant: What makes Spartina anglica so successful? Bioscience 41:393–401.Google Scholar
  115. Vitousek, P.M., L.R. Walker, L.D. Whiteaker, D. Mueller-Dombois, and P. Matson. 1987. Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802–804.Google Scholar
  116. Webb, S.L. and C.K. Kaunzinger. 1993. Biological invasion of the Drew University (New Jersey) Forest Preserve by Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120:343–349.Google Scholar
  117. Williamson, M. and K. Brown. 1986. The analysis and modelling of British invasions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 314:505–522.Google Scholar
  118. Wilson, S.D. and D. Tilman. 1995. Competitive responses of eight old-field plant species in four environments. Ecology 76:1169–1180.Google Scholar
  119. Wiser, S.K., R.B. Allen, P.W. Clinton, and K.H. Platt. 1996. Invasibility of species-poor forest by a perennial herb over 25 years. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77:488.Google Scholar
  120. Witkowski, E.T.F. 1991. Effects of invasive alien acacias on nutrient cycling in the coastal lowlands of the cape fynbos. Journal of Applied Ecology 28:1–15.Google Scholar
  121. Woods, K.D. 1993. Effects of invasion by Lonicera tatarica L. on herbs and tree seedlings in four New England forests. American Midland Naturalist 130:62–74.Google Scholar
  122. Zedier, J.B., E. Paling, and A. McComb. 1990. Differential responses to salinity help explain the replacement of native Juncus kraussii by Typha orientalis in western Australian salt marshes. Australian Journal of Ecology 15:57–72.Google Scholar
  123. Zedier, P.H., G.R. Gautier, and G.S. McMaster. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short fire interval between fires in a California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64:809–818.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingrid M. Parker
  • Sarah H. Reichard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations