Vitamin D pp 85-99 | Cite as

The Enzymes Responsible for Metabolizing Vitamin D

  • Kyu-Ichiro Okuda
  • Yoshihiko Ohyama
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Vitamin D is a generic name for the antirachitic agents capable of curing rickets of which vitamin D3 is the major constituent. Vitamin D3 is formed in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol, by the action of ultraviolet light (1,2). It is then transported to the liver and is hydroxylated at position 25 by vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (25-hydroxylase) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The 25(OH)D3 formed is again transported to the kidney through the blood stream. In the kidney 25(OH)D3 is further hydroxylated at position la by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (lα-hydroxylase) to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] which is now considered the hormonal form of the vitamin. It plays a central role in the physiology of calcium homeostasis (2,3). In some calcium statuses, another metabolite of vitamin D3, 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3], is formed from 25(OH)D3 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase), existing in proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney (4). The two kidney hydroxylases are induced in the reciprocal calcium statuses. lα-Hydroxylase activity is enhanced in a calcium- and/or 1,25(OH)2D3depleted status, whereas that of 24-hydroxylase is enhanced in the replete status (4,5).


Kidney Mitochondrion Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis CYP24 mRNA CYP24 cDNA Proximal Convoluted Tubular Cell 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyu-Ichiro Okuda
  • Yoshihiko Ohyama

There are no affiliations available

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