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Vitamin D pp 1-16 | Cite as

Evolution, Biologic Functions, and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Vitamin D

  • Michael F. Holick
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Approximately 400 million years ago, as vertebrates ventured from the ocean onto land, they were confronted with a significant crisis. As they had evolved in the calcium-rich ocean environment, they utilized this abundant cation for signal transduction and a wide variety of cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, calcium became a major component of the skeleton of marine animals and provided the “cement” for structural support. However, on land, the environment was deficient in calcium; as a result, early marine vertebrates that ventured onto land needed to develop a mechanism to utilize and process the scarce amounts of calcium in their environment in order to maintain their calcium-dependent cellular and metabolic activities and also satisfy the large requirement for calcium to mineralize their skeletons.

Keywords

Recommend Dietary Allowance Adequate Dietary Intake Concentration Of25 Intestinal Calcium Absorption Epiphyseal Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

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  • Michael F. Holick

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