Growth and Allocation

  • Hans Lambers
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII
  • Thijs L. Pons


Growth of a plant is a consequence of the interaction of all the processes discussed in previous chapters: photosynthesis, long-distance transport, respiration, water relations, and mineral nutrition. By the same token, these physiological processes may be controlled themselves by the growth rate of the plants, as discussed in the preceding chapters; however, what exactly do we mean by plant growth? Growth is the increment in dry mass, volume, length, or area, and it mostly involves the division, expansion, and differentiation of cells. Increment in dry mass, however, may not occur at the same time as increment in one of the other parameters. For example, leaves often expand and roots elongate at night, when the entire plant is decreasing in dry mass because of carbon use in respiration. On the other hand, a tuber may gain dry mass without concomitant change in volume.


Relative Growth Rate Specific Leaf Area Tall Fescue Plant Cell Environ Leaf Expansion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Further Reading

  1. Ahn, J.H., Choi, Y., Kwon, Y.M., Kim, S.-G., Choi, Y.D., & Lee, J.S. (1996) A novel extensin gene encoding for a hydroxyprolin-rich glycoprotein requires sucrose for its wound-inducible expression in transgenic plants. Plant Cell 8:1477–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anten, N.P.R., Schieving, F., & Werger, M.J.A. (1995) Patterns of light and nitrogen distribution in relation to whole canopy carbon gain in C3 and C4 monoand dicotyledonous species. Oecologia 101:504–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aphalo, P.J. & Ballaré, C.L. (1995) On the importance of information-acquiring systems in plant-plant interactions. Funct. Ecol. 9:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong, W., Jackson, M.B., & Brändle, R. (1994) Mechanisms of flood tolerance in plants. Acta Bot. Neerl. 43:307–358.Google Scholar
  5. Atkin, O.K. (1996) Reassessing the nitrogen relations of arctic plants: A mini-review. Plant Cell Environ. 19:695–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkin, O.K., Botman, B., & Lambers, H. (1996) The causes of inherently slow growth in alpine plants: An analysis based on the underlying carbon economies of alpine and lowland Poa species. Funct. Ecol. 10:698–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atwell, B.J. (1989) Physiological responses of lupin roots to soil compaction. In: Structural and functional aspects of transport in roots, B.C. Loughman, O. Gasparikova, & J. Kolek (eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atwell, B.J., Drew, M.C., & Jackson, M.B. (1988) The influence of oxygen deficiency on ethylene synthesis, 1- amino-cyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid levels and aerenchyma formation in roots of Zea mays. Physiol. Plant. 72:15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avice, J.-C., Ourry, A., Volenec, J.J., Lemaire, G., & Boucoud, J. (1996) Defoliation-induced changes in abundance and immuno-localiztion of vegetative storage proteins in taproots of Medicago sativa. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 34:561–570.Google Scholar
  10. Bakken, A.K. (1992) Effect of daylength on the nitrogen status of timothy (Phleum pratense L.). Acta Agric. Scand. 42B:62–68.Google Scholar
  11. Ball, M.C. (1988) Salinity tolerance in the mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina. I. Water use in relation to growth, carbon partitioning and salt balance. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15:447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ball, M.C. & Pidsley, S.M. (1995) Growth responses to salinity in relation to distribution of two mangrove species, Sonneratia alba and S. lanceolata, in northern Australia. Funct. Ecol. 9:77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ballaré, C.L., Scopel, A.L., Roush, M.L., & Radosevich, S.R. (1995) How plants find light in patchy canopies. A comparison between wild-type and phytochromeB-deficient mutant plants of cucumber. Funct. Ecol. 9:859–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banga, M., Blom, C.W.P.M., & Voesenek, L.A.C.J. (1996) Sensitivity to ethylene: The key factor in ethylene production by primary roots of Zea mays L. in submergence-induced shoot elongation of Rumex. Plant Cell Environ. 19:1423–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauer, H. & Thöni, W. (1988) Photosynthetic light acclimation in fully developed leaves of the juvenile and adult life phases of Hedera helix. Physiol. Plant. 73:31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beemster, G.T.S., Masle, J., Williamson, R.E., & Farquhar, G.D. (1996) Effects of soil resistance to root penetration on leaf expansion in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Kinematic analysis of leaf elongation. J. Exp. Bot. 47:1663–1678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belanger, G., Gastal, F., & Warembourg, F.R. (1994) Carbon balance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.): Effects of nitrogen fertilization and the growing season. Ann. Bot. 74:653–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bell, T.L., Pate, J.S., & Dixon, K.W. (1996) Relationship between fire response, morphology, root anatomy and starch distribution in south-west Australian Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. 77:357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bennie, A.T.P. (1996) Growth and mechanical impedance. In: Plant roots: The hidden half, Y. Waisel, A. Eshel, & U. Kafkaki (eds). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 453–470.Google Scholar
  20. Bengough, A.C. & Mullins, C.E. (1990a) The resistnce experienced by roots growing in a pressurized cell. Plant Soil 123:73–82.Google Scholar
  21. Bengough, A.C. & Mullins, C.E. (1990b) Mechanical impedance to root growth: A review of experimental techniques and root growth responses. J. Soil Sci. 41: 341–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Berger, S., Bell, E., Sadka, A., & Mullet, J.E. (1995) Arabidopsis thalina Atvsp is homologous to soybean vspA and vspB, genes encoding vegetative storage protein acid phosphatases, and is regulated similarly by methylGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapin III, F.S. (1988) Ecological aspects of plant putrition. Adv. Min. Nutr. 3:161–191.Google Scholar
  24. Chapin III, F.S., Follet J.M., & O’Connor, K.F. (1982) Growth, phosphate absorption, and phosphorus chemical fractions in two Chionochloa species. J. Ecol. 70:305–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chapin III, F.S., Shaver, G.R., & Kedrowski, R.A. (1986) Environmental controls over carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fractions in Eriophorum in Alaskan tussock tundra. J. Ecol. 74:167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chapin III, F.S., Schulze, E.-D., & Mooney, H.A. (1990) The ecology and economiccs of storage in plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:423–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapin III, F.S., Walter, C.H.S., & Clarkson, D.T. (1988) Growth response of barley and tomato to nitrogen stress and its control by abscisisc acid, water relations and photosynthesis. Planta 173:352–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chimenti, C.A. & Hall, A.J. (1994) Responses to water stress of apoplastic water fraction and bulk elastic modulus of elasticity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes of contrasting capacity for osmotic adjustment. Plant Soil 166:101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, L.J., Whalley, W.R., Dexter, A.R., Barraclough, P.B., & Leight, R.A. (1996) Complete mechanical impedance increases the turgor of cells in the apex of pea roots. Plant Cell Environ. 19:1099–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clarkson, D.T. (1986) Regulation of the absorption and release of nitrate by plant cells: A review of current ideas and methodology. In: Fundamental, ecological and agricultural aspects of nitrogen metabolism in higher plants, H. Lambers, J.J. Neeteson, & I. Stulen (eds). Martinus Nijhof /Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarkson, D.T., Earnshaw, M.J., White, P.J., & Cooper, H.D. (1988) Temperature dependent factors influencing nutrient nutrient uptake: An analysis of responses at different levels of organization. In: Plants and temperature, S.P. Long & F.I. Woodward (eds). Company of Biologists, Cambridge, pp 281–309.Google Scholar
  32. Clarkson, D.T., Jones, L.H.P., & Purves, J.V. (1992) Absorption of nitrate and ammonium ions by Lolum perenne from flowing solution cultures at low root temperatures. Plant Cell Environ. 15:99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cleland, R.E. (1967) Extensibility of isolated cell walls: Measurrements and changes during cell elongation. Planta 74:197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coleman, G.D., Chen, T.H.H., & Fuchigami, L.H. (1992) Complementary DNA cloning of poplar bark storage protein and control of its expression by photoperiod. Plant Physiol. 98:687–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cornelissen, J.H.C., Castro Diez, P., & Hunt, R. (1996) Seedling growth, allocation and leaf attributes in a wide range of woody plant species and types. J. Ecol. 84:755–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cosgrove, D. (1986) Biophysical control of plant cell growth. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37:377–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cosgrove, D.J. (1993) How do plant cell walls extend? Plant Physiol. 24:1–6.Google Scholar
  38. Creelman, R.A., Mason, H.S., Bensen, R.J., Boyer, J.S., & Mullet, J.E. (1990) Water deficit and abscisic acid cause differential inhibition of shoot versus root growth in jasmonate, wounding, sugars, light and phosphate Plant Mol. Biol. 27:933–942.Google Scholar
  39. Berry, J.A. & Raison, J.K. (1981) Responses of macrophytes to temperatue. In: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., Vol. 12A, O.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B. Osmond, & H. Ziegler (eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 277–338.Google Scholar
  40. Björkman, O. (1981) Responses to different quantum flux densities. In: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., Vol 12A, O.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B. Osmond, & H. Ziegler (eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 57–107.Google Scholar
  41. Bloom, A.J., Chapin III, F.S., & Mooney, H.A. (1985) Resource limitation in plants-An economic analogy. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16:363–392.Google Scholar
  42. Boese, S.R. & Huner, N.P. (1990) Effect of growth temperature and temperature shifts on spinach leag morphology and photosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 94: 1830–1835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Boone, F.R. (1986) Towards soil compaction limits for crop growth. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 34:349–360.Google Scholar
  44. Bowen, G.D. (1991) Soil temperature, root growth, and plant function. In: Plant roots: The hidden half. Y. Waisel, A. Eshel, & U. Kafkaki (eds). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 309–330.Google Scholar
  45. Braam, J. & Davis, R.W. (1990) Rain- wind-, and touchinduced expression of calmodulin and calmodulinrelated genes in Arabidopsis. Cell 60:357–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Braam, J., Sistrunk, M.L., Polisensky, D.H., Xu, W., Purugganan, M.M., Antosiewicz, D.M., Campbell, P., & Johnson, K.A. (1996) Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals. Physiol. Plant. 98:909–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brailsford, R.W., Voesenek, L.A.C.J., Blom, C.W.P.M., Smith, A.R., Hall, M.A., & Jackson, M.M. (1993) Enhanced ethylene production by primary roots of Zea mays L. in response to sub-ambent partial pressures of oxygen. Plant Cell Environ. 16:1071–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Brouwer, R. (1963) Some aspects of the equilibrium between overground and underground palant parts. Meded. Inst. Biol. Scheikd. Onderzoek Landbouwgewassen 213:31–39.Google Scholar
  49. Brouwer, R. (1983) Functional equilibrium: Sense or nonsense? Neth. T. Agric. Sci. 31:335–348.Google Scholar
  50. Carpit, N.C. & Gibeaut, D.M. (1993) Structural modelks of primry cell walls in flowering plants: Consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth. Plant J. 3:1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ceulemans, R. (1989) Genetic variation in functional and structural productivity components in Populus. In: Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants, H. Lambers, M.L. Cambridge, H. Konings, & T.L. Pons (eds). SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 69–85.Google Scholar
  52. Chapin III, F.S. (1974) Morphological and physiological mechanisms of temperature compensation in phosphate absorption along a latitudinal gradient. Ecology 55:1180–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chapin III, F.S. (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:233–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fonseca, F., Den Hertog, J., & Stulen, I. (1996) The response of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots. New Phytol. 133:627–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Garnier, E. (1991) Resource capture, biomass allocation and growth in herbaceous plants. Trends Ecol. Evol. 6:126–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Garnier, E. (1992) Growth analysis of congeneric annual and perennial grass species. J. Ecol. 80:665–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Garnier, E. & Laurent, G. (1994) Leaf anatomy, specific leaf mass and water content in congeneric annual and perennial grass species. New Phytol. 128:725–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Garnier, E. & Vancaeyzeele, S. (1994) Carbon and nitrogen content of congeneric annual and perennial grass species: Relationships with growth. Plant Cell Environ. 17:399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Garnier, E., Gobin, O., & Poorter, H. (1995) Interspecific variation in nitrogen productivity depends on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen allocation within the plant. Ann. Bot. 76:667–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gastal, F. & Belanger, G. (1993) The effects of nitrogen fertilization and the growing season on photosynthesis of field-grown tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) canopies. Ann. Bot. 72:401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gould, S.J. & Lewontin, R.C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationists programme. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 205:581–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gowing, D.J.G., Davies, W.J., & Jones, H.G. (1990) A positive root-sourced signal as an indicator of soil drying in apple, Malus x domestica Borkh. J. Exp. Bot. 41:1535–1540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Green, P.B. (1976) Growth and cell pattern formation on an axis: Critique of concepts, terminology, and mode of study. Bot. Gaz. 137:187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grime, J.P. (1979) Plant strategies and vegetation processes. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  65. Grime, J.P. & Hunt, R. (1975) Relative growth-rate: Its range an adaptive significance in a local flora. J. Ecol. 63:393–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Groeneveld, H.W. & Bergkotte, M. (1996) Cell wall composition of leaves of an inherently fast- and a slow-growing grass species. Plant Cell Environ. 19:1389–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harpham, N. V. J., Berry, A.W., Knee, E.M., Roveda Hoyos, G., Raskin, I., Sanders, I.O., Smith, A.R., Wood, C.K., & Hall, M.A. (1991) The effect of ethylene on the growth and development of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Ann. Bot 68:55–61.Google Scholar
  68. Hart, R. (1977) Why are biennials so few? Am. Nat. 111:792–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hay, R.K.M. (1990) The influence of photoperiod on the dry-matter production of grasses and cereals. New Phytol. 116:233–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. He, T. & Cramer, G.R. (1996) Abscisic acid concentrations are correlated with leaf area reductions in two salt-stressed rapid-cycling Brassica species. Plant Soil 179:25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Heide, O.M., Bush, M.G., & Evans, L.T. (1985) Interaction of photoperiod and gibberellin on growth and photo- soybean seedlings. Analysis of growth, sugar accumulation, and gene expression. Plant Physiol. 92:205–214.Google Scholar
  72. Cyr, D.R. & Bewley, J.D. (1990) Proteins in the roots of perennial weeds chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) are associated with overwintering. Planta 182:370–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Cyr, D.R., Bewley, J.D., & Dumbroff, E.B. (1990) Seasonal dynamics of carbohydrate and nitrogenous components in the roots of perennial weeds. Plant Cell Environ. 13:359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dale, J.E. (1988) The control of leaf expansion. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 39:267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Darwin, C. (1880) The power of movement in plants. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  76. Davies, W.J. & Zhang, J. (1991) Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Mol. Biol. 42:55–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Davies, W.J., Tardieu, F., & Trejo, C.L. (1994) How do chemical signals work in plants that grow in drying soil? Plant Physiol. 104:309–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dodd, I.C. & Davies, W.J. (1996) The relationship between leaf growth and ABA accumulation in the grass leaf elongation zone. Plant Cell Environ. 19:1047–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Else, M.A., Davies, W.J., Malone, M., & Jackson, M.B. (1995) A negative hydraulic message from oxygendeficient roots of tomato plants? Influence of soil flooding on leaf water potential. leaf expansion, and synchrony between stomatal conductance and root hydraulic conductivity. Plant Physiol. 109:1017–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Else, M.A., Tiekstra, A.E., Croker, S.J., Davies, W.J., & Jackson, M.B. (1996) Stomatal closure in flooded tomato plants involves abscisic acid and a chemically unidentified anti-transirant in xylem sap. Plant Physiol. 1012:239–247.Google Scholar
  81. Emery, R.J.N., Reid, D.M., & Chinnappa (1994) Phenotypic plasticity of stem elongation in two ecotypes of Stellara longipes: The role of ethylene and reponse to wind. Plant Cell Environ. 17:691–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Evans, G.C. (1972) The quantitative analysis of plant growth. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford.Google Scholar
  83. Evans, J.R. (1989) Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78:9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Farrar, J.F. (1996) Regulation of root weight ratio is mediated by sucrose. Plant Soil 185:13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fetene, M. & Beck, E. (1993) Reversal of direction of photosynthate allocation in Urtica dioica L. plants by increasing cytokinin import into the shoot. Bot. Acta. 106:235–240.Google Scholar
  86. Fichtner, K. & Schulze, E.D. (1992) The effct of nitrogen nutrition on growth and biomass partitioning of annual plants originating from habitats of different nitrogen availability. Oecologia 92:236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Field, C.B. (1991) Ecological scaling of carbon gain to stress and resourse availability In: Integrated responses of plants to stress, H.A. Mooney, W.E. Winner, & E.J. Pell (eds). Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 35–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Fondy, B.R. & Geiger, D.R. (1985) Diurnal changes in alloction of newly fixed carbon in exporting sugar beet leaves. Plant Physiol. 78:753–757. synthesis of high-latitude Poa pratensis. Physiol. Plant. 65:135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Heilmeier, H. & Monson, R.K. (1994) Carbon and nitrogen storage in herbaceous plants. In: A whole-plant perspective on carbon-nitrogen interactions, J. Roy & E. Garnier (eds). SPB Academic publishing, The Hague pp. 149–171.Google Scholar
  90. Heilmeier, H., Schulze, E.-D., & Whale, D.M. (1986) Carbon and nitrogen partitioning in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum Mill. Oecologia 70:466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hirose, T. & Werger, M.J.A. (1987a) Maximizing daily canopy photosynthesis with respect to leaf nitrogen allocation pattern in the canopy. Oecologia 72:520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hirose, T. & Werger, M.J.A. (1987b) Nitrogen use efficiency in instantaneous and daily photosynthesis of leaves in the canopy of a Solidago altissima stand. Physiol. Plant. 70:215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hübel, F. & Beck, F. (1996) Maize root phytase. Purification, characterization, and localization of enzyme activity and its putative substrate. Plant Physiol. 112:1429–1436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hunt, R. (1982) Plant growth curves. The functional approach to growth analysis. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  95. Jackson, M.B. (1985) Ethylene and responses of plants to soil waterlogging and submergence. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 36:145–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jaffe, M.J. (1973) Thigmomorphogenesis: The response of plant growth and development to mechanical stimulation. Planta 114:143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jaffe, M.J. & Forbes, S. (1993) Thigmomorphogenesis: The effects of mechanical perturbation on plants. Plant Growth Regul. 12:313–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jonasson, S. & Chapin III, F.S. (1985) Significance of sequential leaf development for nutrient balance of the cotton sedge, E riophorum vaginatum L. Oecologia 67:511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kendrick, R.E. & Kronenberg, H.H.M. (eds) (1994) Photomorphogenesis in plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  100. Keyes, G., Sorrells, M.E., & Setter, T.L. (1990) Gibberellic acid regulates cell wall extensibility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Physiol. 92:242–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kigel, J. & Cosgrove, D.J. (1991) Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light. Effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties. Plant Physiol. 95:1049–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kimball, B.A., Mauney, J.R., Nakayama, F.S., & Idso, S.B. (1993) Effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on vegetation. Vegetation 104/105:65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kitajima, K. (1994) Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees. Oecologia 98:419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kitajima, K. (1996) Ecophysiology of tropical tree seedling. In: Tropical forest plant ecophysiology, S. Mulkey, R. Chazdon, & A. Smith (eds). Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 559–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Knight, M.R., Campbell, A.K., Smith, S.M., & Trewawas, A.J. (1991) Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch and cold-shock and elicitors on cytoplasmic calcium. Nature 352:524–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Knight, M.R., Smith, S.M., & Trewawas, A.J. (1992) Windinduced plant motion immediately increases cytosolic calciun. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:4967–4971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Konings, H. & Lambers, H. (1991) Respiratory metabolism, oxygen transport and the induction of aerenchyma in roots. In: Plant life under low oxygen: Ecology, physiology and biochemistry, M.B. Jackson, D.D. Davies, & H. Lambers (eds). SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 247–265.Google Scholar
  108. Kraus, E., Lambers, H., & Kollöffel, C. (1993) The effect of handling on the yield of two populations of Lolium perenne selected for differences in mature leaf respiration rate. Physiol. Plant. 89:341–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kraus, E., Kollöffel, C., & Lambers, H. (1994) The effect of handling on photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, and nitrogen and carbohydrate content of populations of Lolium perenne. Physiol. Plant. 91:631–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kuiper, D. & Staal, M. (1987) The effect of exogenously supplied plant growth substances on the physiological plasticity in Plantago major ssp major: Responses of growth, shoot to root ratio and respiration. Physiol. Plant. 69:651–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kuiper, D., Kuiper, P.J.C., Lambers, H., Schuit, J.T., & Staal, M. (1989) Cytokinin contents in relation to mineral nutrition and benzyladenine addition in Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma. Physiol. Plant. 75:511–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kuo, T. & Boersma, L.L. (1971) Soil water suction and root temperature effects on nitrogen fixation in soybeans. Agron. J. 63:901–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lambers, H. & Atkin, O.K. (1995) Regulation of carbon metabolism in roots. In: Carbon partitioning and source-sink interactions in plants, M.A. Madore & W.J. Lucas (eds). American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MD, pp. 226–238.Google Scholar
  114. Lambers, H. & Poorter, H. (1992) Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plant: A search for physiological causes and ecological consequences. Adv. Ecol. Res. 22:187–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lambers, H., Cambridge, M.L., Konings, H., & Pons, T.L. (eds). (1989) Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague.Google Scholar
  116. Lambers, H., Poorter, H., & Van Vuuren, M.M.I. (eds). (1998) Inherent variation in plant growth. Physiological mechanisms and ecological consequences. Backhuys, Leiden.Google Scholar
  117. Langheinrich, U. & Tischner, R. (1991) Vegetative storage proteins in poplar. Induction and characterization of a 32- and a 36-kilodalton polypeptide. Plant Physiol. 97:1017–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leverenz, J.W. (1992) Shade shoot structure and productivity of evergreen conifer stands. Scand. J. For. Res. 7:345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Li, X., Feng, Y., & Boersma, L. (1994) Partitioning of photosynthates between shoot and root in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a function of soil water potential and root temperature. Plant Soil 164:43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Li, Z.-C., Durachko, D.M., & Cosgrove, D.J. (1993) An oat coleoptile wall protein that induces wall extension in vitro and that is antigenetically related to a simular protein from cucumber hypocotyls. Planta 191:349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. MacAdam, J.W., Volenec, J.J., & Nelson, C.J. (1989) Effects of nitrogen supply on mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation in tall fescue leaf blades. Plant Physiol. 89:549–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Maranon, T. & Grub, P.J. (1993) Physiological basis and ecological significance of the seed size and relative growth rate relationship in Mediterranean annuals. Funct. Ecol. 7:591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Martinez-Garcia, J.F. & Garcia-Martinez, J.L. (1992) Interaction of gibberellins and phytochrome in the control of cowpea elongation. Physiol. Plant. 86:236–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Martinoia, E. & Wiemken, A. (1981) Vacuoles as storage compartments for nitrate in barley leaves. Nature 289:292–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Masle, J. & Passioura, J.B. (1987) The effect of soil strength on the growth of young wheat plants. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 14:643–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Materechera, S.A., Alston, A.M., Kirby, J.M., & Dexter, A.R. (1993) Field evaluation of laboratory techniques for predicting the ability of roots to penetrate strong soil and of the influence of roots on water absorptivity. Plant Soil 149:149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. McArthur, R.H. & Wilson E.O. (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  128. McDonald, A.J.S. & Davies, W.J. (1996) Keeping in touch: Responses of the whole plant to deficits in water and nitrogen supply. Adv. Bot. Res. 22:229–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McQueen-Mason, S.J. (1995) Expansions and cell wall expansion. J. Exp. Bot. 46:1639–1650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. McQueen-Mason, S.J., Durachko, D.M., & Cosgrove, D.J. (1992) Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension. Plant Cell 4:1425–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Millard, P. (1988) The accumulation and storage of nitrogen by herbaceous plants. Plant Cell Environ. 11:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Millard, P. & Neilson, G.H. (1989) The influence of nitrogen supply on the uptake and remobilization of stored N for the seasonal growth of apple trees. Ann. Bot. 63:301–309.Google Scholar
  133. Munns, R. & Cramer, G.R. (1996) Is coordination of leaf and root growth mediated by abscisic acid? Plant Soil 185:33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Munns, R. & Sharp, R.E. (1993) Involvement of abscisic acid in controlling plant growth in soil of low water potential. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 20:425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Neumann, P.M., Azaizeh, H., & Leon, D. (1994) Hardening of root cell walls: A growth inhibitory response to salinity stress. Plant Cell Environ. 17:303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Okamoto, A. & Okamoto, H. (1995) Two proteins regulate the cell-wall extensibility and the yield threshold in glycerinated hollow cylinders of cowpea hypocotyl. Plant Cell Environ. 18:827–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Okamoto, A., Katsumi, M., & Okamoto, H. (1995) The effects of auxin on the mechanical properties in vivo of cell wall in hypocotyl segments from gibberellindeficient cowpea seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol. 36:645–651.Google Scholar
  138. Palmer, S.J., Berridge, D.M., McDonald, A.J.S., & Davies, W.J. (1996) Control of leaf expansion is sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by nitrogen nutrition. J. Exp. Bot. 47:359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Parsons, R.F. (1968) The significance of growth-rate comparisons for plant ecology. Am. Nat. 102:595–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Passioura, J.B. (1988) Root signals control leaf expansion in wheat seedlings growing in drying soil. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15:687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Passioura, J.B. (1994) The physical chemistry of the primary cell wall: Implications for the control of expansion rate. J. Exp. Bot. 45:1675–1682.Google Scholar
  142. Passioura, J.B. & Fry, S.C. (1992) Turgor and cell expansion: beyond the Lockhart equation. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 19:565–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Peters, W.S. & Tomos, D. (1996) The epidermis still in control? Bot. Acta 109:264–267.Google Scholar
  144. Pianka, E.R. (1970) On r and K selection. Am. Nat. 104:592–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pons, T.L. (1977) An ecophysiological study in the field layer of ash coppice. II. Experiments with Geum urbanum and Cirsium palustre in different light intensities. Acta Bot. Neerl. 26:29–42.Google Scholar
  146. Pons, T.L. & Bergkotte, M. (1996) Nitrogen allocation in response to partial shading of a plant: Possible mechanisms. Physiol. Plant. 98:571–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pons, T.L., Schieving, F., Hirose, T., & Werger, M.J.A. (1989) Optimization of leaf nitrogen allocation for canopy photosynthesis in Lysimachia vulgaris. In: Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants, H. Lambers, M.L. Cambridge, H. Konings, & T.L. Pons (eds). SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 175–186.Google Scholar
  148. Poorter, H. (1993) Interspcific variation in the growth response of plants to an elevated ambient COZ concentration. Vegetatio 104/105:77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Poorter, H. & Remkes, C. (1990) Leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Oečologia 83:553–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Poorter, H., Remkes, C., & Lambers, H. (1990) Carbon and nitrogen economy of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Plant Phvsiol. 94:621–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Poorter, H., Gifford, R.M., Kriedemann, P.E., & Wong, S.C. (1992) A quantitative analysis of dark respiration and carbon content as factors in the growth response of plants to elevated CO2. Aust. J. Bot. 40:501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Poorter, H., Van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., Boot, R.G.A., & Lambers, H. (1995) Growth and carbon economy of a fast-growing and a slow-growing grass species as dependent on nitrate supply. Plant Soil 171:217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Poorter, H., Roumet, C., & Campbell, B.D. (1996) Interspecific variation in the growth response of plants to elevated CO2: A search for functional types. In: Biological diversity in a CO2- rich world, C. Körner & F.A. Bazzaz (eds). Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 375–412.Google Scholar
  154. Pritchard, J. (1994) The control of cell expansion in roots. New Phytol. 127:3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pritchard, J., Hethrington, P.R., Fry, & Iomos, A.D. (1993) Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity, microfibril orientation and the profiles of cell wall properties along growing regions of maize roots. J. Exp. Bot. 44:1281–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pritchard, J., Fricke, W., & Tomos, D. (1996) Turgorregulation during extension growth and osmotic stress of maize roots. An example of single-cell mapping. Plant Soil 187:11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Radin, J.W. & Boyer, J.S. (1990) Control of leaf expansion by nitrogen nutrition in sunflower plants: Role of hydraulic conductivity and turgor. Plant Physiol. 69:771–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ramahaleo, T., Alexandre, J., & Lasalles, J.-P. (1996) Stretch activated channels in plant cells. A new model for osmoelastic coupling. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 34:327–334.Google Scholar
  159. Rappoport, H.F. & Loomis, R.S. (1985) Interaction or storage root and shoot in grafted sugarbeet and chard. Crop Sci. 25:1079–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Reich, P.B. (1993) Reconciling apparent discrepancies among studies relating life span, structure and function of leaves in contrasting plant life forms and climates: “The blind men and the elephant retold.” Funct. Ecol. 7:721–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Reich, P.B., Uhl, C., Walters, M.B., & Ellsworth, D.S. (1991) Leaf life-span as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 amazonian tree species. Oecologia 86:16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B., & Ellsworth, D.S. (1992a) Lear life-span in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 62:365–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B., & Ellsworth, D.S. (1992b) Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 62:365–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rosnitschek-Schimmel, I. (1983) Biomass and nitroger partitioning in a perennial and an annual nitrophilic species of Urtica. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 109:215–225.Google Scholar
  165. Rozema, J., Lambers, H., Van de Geijn, S.C., & Cambridge, M.L. (1992) CO2 and Biosphere. Kluwer Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  166. Russel, G. & Grace, J. (1978) The effects of wind on grasses V. Leaf extension, diffusive conductance, and photosyn thesis in the wind tunnel. J. Exp. Bot. 29:1249–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Russel, G. & Grace, J. (1979) The effects of windspeed o the growth of grasses. J. Appl. Ecol. 16:507–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ryser, P. (1998) Intra- and interspecific variation in roc length, root turnover and the underlying parameter In: Inherent variation in plant growth. Physiologica mechanisms and ecological consequences, H. Lamber, H. Poorter, & M.M.I. Van Vuuren (eds). Backhuy Leiden, pp. 441–502.Google Scholar
  169. Saab, I.N. & Sachs, M.N. (1996) A flooding-induce xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase homolog in mai is responsive to ethylene and assocaited wii aerenchyma. Plant Physiol. 112:385–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Aab, I.N., Sharp, R.R., Pritchard, J., & Voetberg, G.S. (1990) Increased endogenous abscisic acid maintains primary root growth and inhibits shoot growth of maize seedlings at low water potentials. Plant Physiol. 93:1329–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Anter, B.D., Wigley, T.M.L., Barnett, T.P., & Anyamba, E. (1996) Detection of climate change and attribution of causes. In: Climate change 1995: The science of climate change, J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, & K. Maskell (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 407–443.Google Scholar
  172. Sauter, J.J. & Van Cleve, B. (1990) Biochemical, immunochemical, and ultrastructural studies of protein storage in poplar (Populus x canadensis “robusta”) wood. Planta 183:92–100.Google Scholar
  173. Schulze, E.-D. & Chapin III, F.S. (1987) Plant specialization to environments of different resource availability. In: Potentials and limitations of ecosystem analysis, E.-D. Schulze & H. Zwölfer (eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 120–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Simpson, R.J., Lambers, H., Beilharz, V.C., & Dalling, M.J. (1982a) Translocation of nitrogen in a vegetative wheat plant (Triticum aestivum). Physiol. Plant. 56:11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Simpson, R.J., Lambers, H., & Dalling, M.J. (1982b) Kinetin application to roots and its effects on uptake, translocation and distribution of nitrogen in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown with a split root system. Physiol. Plant. 56:430–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Simpson, R.J., Lambers, H., & Dalling, M. J. (1983) N itrogen redistribution during grain growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. development of a quantitative model of the translocation of nitrogen to the grain. Plant Phvsiol. 71:7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Smith, H. (1981) Adaptation to shade. In: Physiological processes limiting plant productivity, C.B. Johnson, (ed). Butterworths, London, pp. 159–173.Google Scholar
  178. Smith, R.C., Matthews, P.R., Schunmann, & Chandler, P.M. (1996) The regulation of leaf elongation and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase by gibberellin in “Himalaya” barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J. Exp. Bot. 47:1395–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Snir, N. & Neumann, P.M. (1997) Mineral nutrient supply, cell wall adjustment and the control of leaf growth. Plant Cell Environ. 20:239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Staswick, P.E. (1988) Soybean vegetative storage protein structure and gene expression. Plant Physiol. 87:250–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Staswick, P.E. (1990) Novel regulation of vegetative storage protein genes. Plant Cell 2:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Staswick, P.E., Huang, J.-F., & Rhee, Y. (1991) Nitrogen and methyl jasmonate induction of soybean vegetative s. storage protein genes. Plant Physiol. 96:130–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Steingröver, E. (1981) The relationship between cyanideresistant root respiration and the storage of sugars s. in the taproot in Daucus carota L. J. Exp. Bot. 32:911–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Steponkus, P.L. (1981) Responses to extreme temperatures. Cellular and sub-cellular bases. In: Encyclopedia ze of plant physiology, N.S., Vol. 12A, O.L. Lange, P.S. th Nobel, C.B. Osmond, & H. Ziegler (eds). SpringerVerlag, Berlin, pp. 371–402.Google Scholar
  185. Stirzaker, R.J., Passioura, J.B., & Wilms, Y. (1996) Soil structure and plant growth: Impact of bulk debsity and biopores. Plant Soil 185:151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Stulen, I. & Den Hertog, J. (1993) Root growth and functioning under atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Vegetatio 104/105:99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tardieu, F., Zhang, J., Katerji, N., Bethenod, O., Palmer, S., & Davies, W.J. (1992) Xylem ABA controls the stomatal conductance of field-grown maize subjected to soil compaction or soil drying. Plant Cell Environ. 15:193–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ternesi, M., Andrade, A.P., Jorrin, J., & Benloloch, M. (1994) Root-shoot signalling in sunflower plants with confined root systems. Plant Soil 166:31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Terry, N. (1970) Developmental physiology of sugarbeet. II. Effect of temperature and nitrogen supply on the growth, soluble carbohydrate content and nitrogen content of leaves and roots. J. Exp. Bot. 21:477–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Todd, G.W., Chadwick, D.L., & Tsai, S.-D. (1972) Effect of wind on plant respiration. Physiol. Plant. 27:342–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Touraine, B., Clarkson, D.T., & Muller, B. (1994) Regulation of nitrate uptake at the whole plant level. In: A whole-plant perspective on carbon-nitrogen interactions, J. Roy & E. Garnier (eds). SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 11–30.Google Scholar
  192. Van Arendonk, J.J.C.M., Niemann, G.J., Boon, J.J., & Lambers, H. (1997) Effects of N-supply on anatomy and chemical composition of leaves of four grass species, belonging to the genus Poa, as determined by imageprocessing analysis and pyrolysis-mass spectrometry. Plant Cell Environ. 20:881–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Van Arendonk, J.J.C.M. & Poorter, H. (1994) The chemical composition and anatomical structure of leaves of grass species differing in relative growth rate. Plant Cell Environ. 17:963–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Van den Boogaard, R., Goubitz, S., Veneklaas, E.J., & Lambers, H. (1996) Carbon and nitrogen economy of four Triticum aestivum cultivars differing in relative growth rate and water use efficiency. Plant Cell Environ. 19:998–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Van der Werf, A. (1996) Growth analysis and photoassimilate partitioning. In: Photoassimilate distribution in plants and crops: Source-sink relationships, E. Zamski & A.A. Schaffer (eds). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  196. Van der Werf, A., Visser, A.J., Schieving, F., & Lambers, H. (1993) Evidence for optimal partitioning of biomass and nitrogen at a range of nitrogen availabilities for a fast- growing and slow-growing species. Funct. Ecol. 7:63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Van der Werf, A. & Nagel, O.W. (1996) Carbon allocation to shoots and roots in relation to nitrogen supply is mediated by cytokinins and sucrose. Plant Soil 185:21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Van Volkenburgh, E. (1994) Leaf and shoot growth. In: Physiology and determination of crop yield, K.J. Boote, J.M. Bennet, T.R. Sinclair, & G.M. Paulsen (eds). American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 101–120.Google Scholar
  199. Van Volkenburgh, E. & Boyer, J.S. (1985) Inhibitory effects of water deficit on maize leaf elongation. Plant Physiol. 77:190–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Visser, E.J.W., Cohen, J.D., Barendse, G.W.M., Blom, C.W.P.M., & Voesenek, L.A.C.J. (1996) An ethylenemediated increase in sensitivity to auxin induces adventitious root formation in flooded Rumex palustris Sm. Plant Physiol. 112:1687–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Voesenek, L.A.C.J., Banga, M., Thier, R.H., Mudde, C.M., Harren, F.J.M., Barendse, G.W.M., & Blom, C.W.P.M. (1993) Submergence-induced ethylene synthesis, entrapment, and growth in two plant species with contrasting flooding resistance. Plant Physiol. 103:783–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Vriezen, W.H., Van Rijn, C.P.E., Voesenek, L.A.C.J., & Mariani, C. (1997) A homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana ERS gene is actively regulated in Rumex palustris upon flooding. Plant J. 11:1265–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wong, S.C. (1993) Interaction between elevated atmpspheric concentration of CO2 and humidity on plant growth: comparison between cotton and radish. Vegetatio 104/5:211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Witkowski, E.T.F. & Lamont, B.B. (1991) Leaf specific mass confounds leaf density and thickness. Oecologia 88:486–493.Google Scholar
  205. Wu, Y., Sharp, R.E., Durachko, D.M., & Cosgrove, D.J. (1996) Growth maintenance of the maize primary root at low water potentials involves increases in cell-wall extension properties, expansin activity, and wall susceptibility to expansins? Plant Physiol. 111:765–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Zhu, G.L. & Boyer, J.S. (1992) Enlargement in Chara studied with a turgor clamp. Growth rate is not determined by turgor. Plant Physiol. 100:2071–2080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Zidan, I., Azaizeh, H., & Neumann, P.M. (1990) Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification? Plant Physiol. 93:7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Lambers
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Stuart ChapinIII
    • 3
  • Thijs L. Pons
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Plant Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations