Product Durability and Re-Take after Use

  • Walter R. Stahel


The key to improved product durability lies in the transformation of the actual linear production-focused industrial economy into a utilization-focused service economy operating in loops. Such a transformation process will result in an increased regional competitiveness and a new economic structure relying more extensively on digital and virtual goods rather than the analog (mechanical) products.


Resource Consumption Industrial Economy Sustainable Society Service Economy Product Durability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carnoules Declaration of the Factor 10 Club(1994); available from Prof. Dr F. SchmidtBleek, Vice-President, Wuppertal Institute, D-42103 Wuppertal.Google Scholar
  2. Cower, James C. (ed.) (1981) Quest for a Sustainable Society,published in cooperation with The Woodlands Conference; Pergamon Press, New York, Oxford etc; ISBN 0–08027168–5.Google Scholar
  3. Dieren, Wou’ter VAN (1995) Taking Nature into Account,Birkhäuser–Verlag, Basel, ISBN 3–7643–5173–X.Google Scholar
  4. Giarini, Oleo (1980) Dialogue on Wealth and Welfare — A Report to the Club of Rome, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. Giarini, Orio and Stahel, Walter R. (1989/1993) The Limits to Certainty: Facing Risks in the New Service Economy; Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London — ISBN 0–7923–2167–7.Google Scholar
  6. Giarini, Orio(1994) `The Service Economy: Challenges and Opportunities for Business Firms’, in Marketing Strategies for Services, Michel Kostecki (ed.), Oxford Pergamon Press, pp. 23 — 40. — ISBN 0 08 042389 2Google Scholar
  7. Gross, Peter (1995), Die Multi-Options-Gesellschaft (the multi-option society), Suhrkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Gruhler, Wolfram (1990) Dienstleistungsbestimmter Strukturwandel in deutschen Industrieunternehmen; Deutscher Instituts Verlag Köln; ISBN 3–602–24406–7.Google Scholar
  9. Jackson, TIM (ed.) (1993) Clean Production Strategies: Developing Preventive Environmental Management in the Industrial Economy — Stockholm Environment Institute; Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, ISBN 0–87371–884–4.Google Scholar
  10. Jackson, TIM(1996) Material Concerns, Pollution, Profit and Quality of Life; Routledge, London. ISBN 0–415–13249–5.Google Scholar
  11. Jetro (1992) Ecofactory — Concept and R and D Themes — New Technology Japan; Japan External Trade Organization, Special Issue JETRO FY 1992.Google Scholar
  12. Schmidt-Bleek, Friedrich (1994/96) The Fossil Makers — Factor 10 and More Google Scholar
  13. Wieviel Umwelt braucht der Mensch? MIPS — Das Mass für ökologisches Wirtschaften); Birkhäuser Verlags AG, Berlin, Basel; ISBN 3–7643–2959–9.Google Scholar
  14. Stahel, Walter R. (1995) 300 examples of higher resource productivity in today’s industry and society (Intelligente Produktionsweisen und Nutzungskonzepte) — Handbuch Abfall 1 — Allg. Kreislauf-und Rückstandswirtschaft; Band 1 und 2, Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.), Karlsruhe.Google Scholar
  15. Stahel, Walter R. (1994) The impact of shortening (or lengthening) of life-time of products and production equipment on industrial competitiveness, sustainability and employment; report to the European Commission, DG III, Nov 1, 1994.Google Scholar
  16. Stahel, Walter R. (1992) Re-use and Re-cycling, Waste prevention and resource savings in utilization, conference manuscript, GuildfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Stahel, Walter R. (1985) Hidden innovation, R and D in a sustainable society, in: Science and Public Policy, Journal of the International Science Policy Foundation, London; Volume 13, Number, 4 August 1986, Special Issue: The Hidden Wealth.Google Scholar
  18. Stahel, Walter R. (1984) “The Product-Life Factor”; in: Orr, Susan Grinton (ed.) An Inquiry into the Nature of Sustainable Societies: The Role of the Private Sector; HARC, The Woodlands, TX.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter R. Stahel
    • 1
  1. 1.The Product-Life InstituteGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations