Endothelin pp 167-188 | Cite as

The Renal and Systemic Hemodynamic Actions of Endothelin

  • Robert O. Banks
  • David M. Pollock
  • Jacqueline Novak
Part of the Contemporary Biomedicine book series (CB)


The family of biologically active peptides known as the endothelins (ETs) has been the focus of considerable research since the isolation of an endothelial cell constricting factor (EDCF) by Hickey et al. in 1985 (1) and the subsequent cloning of endothelin-1 (ET-1) by Yanagisawa et al., in 1988 (2). Endothelin and endothelinrelated peptides (ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3) have profound effects on a number of hemodynamic variables relating to cardiovascular and renal function. ET-1 is one of the most potent vasoconstrictor agents that has been isolated. Systemic actions of the peptide require concentrations similar to those of angiotensin II and vasopressin (3),whereas the renal hemodynamic potency exceeds other vasoconstrictors by approximately one order of magnitude. In addition, a number of studies have demonstrated that ET-1 possesses significant vasodilator properties, demonstrating that the molecule has rather unique properties among the long list of vasoactive, biologically important molecules.


Glomerular Filtration Rate Renal Blood Flow Porcine Coronary Artery Efferent Arteriole Renal Action 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hickey, K. A., Rubanyi, G. M., Paul, R. J., and Highsmith, R. F. (1985) Characterization of a coronary vasoconstrictor produced by cultured endothelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 248: C550–0556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yanagisawa, M., Kurihara, H., Kimura, S., Tomobe, Y., Kobayashi, M., Mitsui, Y., Yazaki, K., Goto, Y., and Masaki, T. (1988) A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature (London) 332: 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goetz, K. L., Wang, B. C., Madwed, J. B., Zhu, J. L., and Leadley, R. J., Jr. (1988) Cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine responses to intravenous endothelin in conscious dogs. Am. J. Phyiol. 255: R1064 — R1068.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simonson, M. S. and Dunn, M. J. (1993) Endothelin peptides and the kidney. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55: 249–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frelin, C. and Guedin, D. (1994) Why are circulating concentrations of endothelin-1 so low? Cardiovas. Res. 28: 1613–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller, W. L., Redfield, M. M., and Burnett, J. C., Jr. (1989) Integrated cardiac, renal, and endocrine actions of endothelin. J. Clin. Invest. 83: 317–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    King, A. J., Brenner, B. M., and Anderson, S. (1989) Endothelin: a potent renal and systemic vasoconstrictor peptide. Am. J. Physiol. 256: F1051 - F1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kon, V., Yoshioka, T., Fogo, A., and Ichikawa, I. (1989) Glomerular actions of endothelin in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 83: 1762–1767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lopez-Farre, A., Montanes, I., Mellas, I., and Lopez-Novoa, J. (1989) Effect of endothelin on renal function in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 163: 187–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsuchiya, K., Naruse, M., Sanaka, T., Nitta, K., Demura, H., and Sugino, N. (1989) Effects of endothelin on renal regional blood flow in dogs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 166: 541–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Banks, R. O. (1990) Effects of endothelin on renal function in dogs and rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258: F775 - F780.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banks, R. O. (1988) Vasoconstrictor-induced changes in renal blood flow: role of prostaglandins and histamine. Am. J. Physiol. 254: F470 - F476Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takuwa, Y. (1993) Endothelin in vascular and endocrine systems: biological activities and its mechanism of action. Endocrine J. 40: 489–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rubanyi, G. and Polokoff, M. (1994) Endothelins: molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology and pathophysiology. Pharm. Rev. 46 (3): 325–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cao, L. and Banks R. O. (1990) Effect of nephrectomy and of adrenergic receptor blockers on the cardiorenal actions of endothelin. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 194: 119–124.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cao, L. and Banks, R. O. (1990) Cardiorenal actions of endothelin, part II: effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Life Sci. 46: 585–590.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chou, S. Y., Dahhan, A., and Porush, J. G. (1990) Renal actions of endothelin: interaction with prostacyclin. Am. J. Physiol. 259: F645 - F652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cao, L. and Banks, R. O. (1990) Cardiorenal actions of endothelin, part I: effects of converting enzyme inhibition. Life Sci. 46: 577–583.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chan, D. P., Clavell, A., Keiser, J., and Burnett, J. C., Jr. (1994) Effects of renin-angiotensin system in mediating endothelin-induced renal vasoconstriction: therapeutic implications. J. Hypertens. 12(Suppl. 4 ): S43 - S49.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilkins, F. C., Jr., Alberola, A., Mizelle, H. L., Opgenorth, T. J., and Granger, J. P. (1995) Systemic hemodynamics and renal function during long-term pathophysiological increases in circulating endothelin. Am. J. Physiol. 268: R375 - R381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Edwards, R. M., Trizna, W., and Ohlstein, E. H. (1990) Renal microvascular effects of endothelin. Am. J. Physiol. 259: F217 - F221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lanese, D. M., Yuan, B. H., McMurtry, I., and Conger, J. D. (1992) Comparative sensitivities of isolated rat renal arterioles to endothelin. Am. J. Physiol. 263: F894 - F899.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loutzenhiser, R., Epstein, M., Hayashi, K., and Horton, C. (1990) Direct visualization of effects of endothelin on the renal microvasculature. Am. J. Physiol. 258: F61 - F68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Badr, K. F., Murray, J. J., Breyer, M. D., Takahashi, K., Inagami, T., and Harris, R. C. (1989) Mesangial cell, glomerular and renal vascular responses to endothelin in the rat kidney. J. Clin. Invest. 83: 336–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Highsmith, R. F., Blackburn, K., and Schmidt, D. J. (1992) Endothelin and calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 54: 257–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cao, L. and Banks, R. O. (1990) Cardiovascular and renal actions of endothelin: effects of calcium channel blockers. Am. J. Physiol. 258: F254 — F258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Folzenlogen, S. L., Novak, J., and Banks, R. O. (1992) Renal actions of endothelin during mannitol and saline expansion. Proc. Soc. Biol. Med. 200: 378–382.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Novak, J. and Banks, R. O. (1995) Lead and nickel alter the cardiorenal actions of endothelin in the rat. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 208: 191–198.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Montanes, I., Flores, O., Eleno, N., and Lopez-Novoa, J. M. (1994) Effects of a new dihydropyridine derivative, S 12968 (pranedipine), and its stereoisomer, 512967, on renal effects of endothelin-1. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 72: 1294–1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takahashi, K., Katoh, T., Fukunaga, M., and Badr, K. F. (1993) Studies on the glomerular microcirculatiory actions of manidipine and its modulation of the systemic and renal effects of endothelin. Am. Heart J. 125: 609–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaasjager, K. A., Koomans, H. A., and Rabelink, T. J. (1995) Effectiveness of enalapril versus nifedipine to antagonize blood pressure and the renal response to endothelin in humans. Hypertension 25: 620–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gardiner, S. M., Compton, A. M., Kemp, P. A., and Bennett, T. (1991) The effects of phosphoramidon on the regional haemodynamic responses to human proendothelin [1–38] in conscious rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 103: 2009–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Matsumura, Y., Hisaki, K., Takaoka, M., and Morimoto, S. (1990) Phosphoramidon, a metalloprotease inhibitor, suppresses the hypertensive effect of big endothelin-l. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 185: 103–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McMahon, E. G., Palomo, M. A., Moore, W. M., McDonald, J. F., and Stern, M. K. (1991) Phosphoramidon blocks the pressor activity of porcine big endothelin-1-(1–39) in vivo and conversion of big endothelin-1(1–39) to endothelin-l-(1–21) in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 703–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pollock, D. M. and Opgenorth, T. J. (1991) Evidence for metalloprotease involvement in the in vivo effects of big endothelin 1. Am. J. Physiol. 261: R257 — R263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Telemaque, S., Lamaire, D., Claing, A., and D’Orleans-Juste, P. (1992) Phosphoramidon-sensitive effects of big endothelins in the perfused rabbit kidney. Hypertension 20: 518–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pollock, D. M., Divish, B. J., Milicic, I., Novosad, E. I., Burres, N. S., and Opgenorth, T. J. (1993) In vivo characterization of a phosphoramidonsensitive endothelin-converting enzyme in the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 231: 459–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pollock, D. M. and Opgenorth, T. J. (1993) Evidence for endothelininduced renal vasoconstriction independent of ETA receptor activation. Am. J. Physiol. 264: R222 — R226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Auguet, M., Delaflotte, S., Chabrier, P. E., and Braquet, P. (1992) The vasoconstrictor action of big endothelin-1 is phosphoramidon-sensitive in rabbit saphenous artery but not in saphenous vein. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 224: 101, 102.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Salvati, P., Dho, L., Calabresi, M., Rosa, B., and Patrono, C. (1992) Evidence for a direct vasoconstrictor effect of big endothelin-1 in the rat kidney. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 221: 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Opgenorth, T., Wu-Wong, J. R., and Shiosaki, K. (1992) Endothelin-converting enzymes. FASEB J. 6: 2653–2659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wagner, O. F., Christ, G., Wojta, J., Vierhapper, H., Parzer, S., Nowotny, P. J., Schneider, B., Waldhausl, W., and Binder, B. R. (1992) Polar secretion of endothelin-1 by cultured endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 267:16, 066–16, 068.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirata, Y., Yoshimi, H., Takaichi, S., Yanagisawa, M., and Masaki, T. (1988) Binding and receptor down-regulation of a novel vasoconstrictor endothelin in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 239: 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clozel, M., Fischli, W., and Guilli, C. (1989) Specific binding of endothelin on human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. J. Clin. Invest. 83: 1758–1761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hemsen, A., Pernow, J., and Lundberg, J. M. (1991) Regional extraction of endothelins and conversion of big endothelin to endothelin-1 in the pig. Acta Physiol. Scand. 141: 325–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pollock, D. M. and Opgenorth, T. J. (1994) ETA receptor-mediated responses to endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 in the rat kidney. Br. J. Pharmacol.111:729–732.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yamashita, Y., Yukimura, T., Miura, K., Okumura, M., and Yamamoto, K. (1991) Effects of endothelin-3 on renal functions. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 259: 1256–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Telemaque, S., Gratton, J. P., Claing, A., and D’Orleans-Juste, P. (1993) Endothelin-1 induces vasoconstriction and prostacyclin release via the activation of endothelin ETA receptors in the perfused rabbit kidney. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 237: 275–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karet, F. E., Kuc, R. E., and Davenport, A. P. (1993) Novel ligands BQ123 and BQ3020 characterize endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB in human kidney. Kidney Internat. 44: 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nambi, P., Pullen, M., Wu, H. L., Aiyar, N., and Ohlstein, E. H. (1992) Identification of endothelin receptor subtypes in human renal cortex and medulla using subtype-selective ligands. Endocrinology 131: 1081–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nambi, P., Wu, H. L., Pullen, M., Aiyar, N., Bryan, H., and Elliott, J. (1992) Identification of endothelin receptor subtypes in rat kidney cortex using subtype-selective ligands. Mol. Pharmacol. 42: 336–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Novak, J. and Banks, R. O. (1994). The cardiorenal response to the ETB agonist, [Ala1–3–11–15]ET–1. FASEB J. 8: A580.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wellings, R. P., Corder, R., Warner, T. D., Cristol, J. P., Thiemermann, C., and Vane, J. R. (1994) Evidence from receptor antagonists of an important role for ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstrictor effects of endothelin-1 in the rat kidney. Br. J. Pharmacol. 111: 515–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Battistini, B., Warner, T. D., Fournier, A., and Vane, J. R. (1994) Characterization of ETB receptors mediating contractions induced by endothelin-1 or IRL 1620 in guinea pig isolated airways: effects of BQ-123, FR 139317 or PD 145065. Br. J. Pharmacol. 111: 1009–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bigaud, M. and Pelton, J. T. (1992) Discrimination between ETA- and ETB-receptor-mediated effects of endothelin-1 and [Ala 1,3,11,15] endothelin-1 by BQ-123 in the anesthetized rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 107: 912–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Clozel, M., Gray, G. A., Breu, V., Loffler, B. M., and Osterwalder, R. (1992) The endothelin ETB receptor mediates both vasodilation and vasoconstriction in vivo. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 186: 867–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cristol, J. P., Warner, T. D., Thiemermann, C., and Vane, J. R. (1993) Mediation via different receptors of the vasoconstrictor effects of endothelins and sarafotoxins in the systemic circulation and renal vasculature of the anaesthetized rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 108: 776–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McMurdo, L., Corder, R., Thiemermann, C., and Vane, J. (1993) Incomplete inhibition of the pressor effects of endothelin-1 and related peptides in the anesthetized rat with BQ-123 provides evidence for more than one vasoconstrictor receptor. Br. J. Pharmacol. 108: 557–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Warner, T. D., Mitchell, J. A., de Nucci, G., and Vane, J. R. (1989) Endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 release EDRF from isolated perfused arterial vessels of the rat and rabbit. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13: S85 - S88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Warner, T. D., Battistini, B., Allcock, G. H., and Vane, J. R. (1993) Endothelin ETA and ETB receptors mediate vasoconstriction and prostanoid release in the isolated kidney of the rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 250: 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Webb, M. L., Liu, E. C. K., Monshizadegan, H., Chao, C. C., Lynch, J., Fisher, S. M., and Rose, P. M. (1993) Expression of endothelin receptor subtypes in rabbit saphenous vein. Mol. Pharmacol. 44: 959–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Uzuner, K. and Banks, R. O. (1993) Endothelin-induced natriuresis and diuresis are pressure-dependent events in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 265: R90 - R96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Edwards, R. M., Stack, E. J., Pullen, M., and Nambi, P. (1993) Endothelin inhibits vasopressin action in rat inner medullary collecting duct via the ETB receptor. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267: 1028–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kohan, D. E., Padilla, E., and Hughes, A. K. (1993) Endothelin B receptor mediates ET-1 effects on cAMP and PGE2 accumulation in rat IMCD. Am. J. Physiol. 265: F670 - F676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nadler, S. P., Zimpelmann, J. A, and Hebert, R. L. (1992) Endothelin inhibits vasopressin-stimulated water permeability in rat terminal inner medullary collecting duct. J. Clin. Invest. 90: 1458–1466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zeidel, M. L., Brady, H. R., Kone, B. C., Gullans, S. R., and Brenner, B. M. (1989) Endothelin, a peptide inhibitor of Na+-K+-ATPase in intact renal tubular epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 257: C1101 — C1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ferrario, R. G., Foulkes, R., Salvati, P., and Patrono, C. (1989) Hemodynamic and tubular effects of endothelin and thromboxane in isolated per-fused rat kidney. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 171: 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Perico, N., Cornejo, R. P., Benigni, A., Malachini, B., Ladny, J. R., and Remuzzi, G. (1991) Endothelin induces diuresis and natriuresis in the rat by acting on proximal tubular cells through a mechanism mediated by lipoxygenase products. J. Am. Soc. Nephol. 2: 57–69.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harris, P. J., Zhou, J., Mendelsohn, F. A. O., and Skinner, S. L. (1991) Haemodynamic and renal tubular effects of low doses of endothelin in anaesthetized rats. J. Physiol. 433: 25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schnermann, J., Lorenz, J. N., Briggs, J. P., and Keiser, J. A. (1992) Induction of water diuresis by endothelin in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 263: F516 — F526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clavell, A. L., Stingo, A. J., Margulies, K. B., Brandt, R. R., and Burnett, J. C. (1995) Role of endothelin receptor subtypes in the in vivo regulation of renal function. Am. J. Physiol. 37: F455 — F460.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hoffman, A., Grossman, E., and Keiser, H. R. (1990) Opposite effects of endothelin-1 and Big endothelin-1(1–39) on renal function in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 182: 603–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Abassi, Z. A., Golomb, E., Bridenbaugh, R., and Keiser, H. R. (1993) Metabolism of endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 by recombinant neutral endopeptidase EC. Br. J. Pharmacol. 109: 1024 1028.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hoffman, A., Grossman, E., Ohman, K. P., Marks, E., and Keiser, H. R. (1989) Endothelin induces an initial increase in cardiac output associated with selective vasodilation in rats. Life Sci. 45: 249–255.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mortensen, L. H. and Fink, G. D. (1990) Hemodynamic effect of human and rat endothlein administration into conscious rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258: H362 — H368.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    MacLean, M., Randall, M., and Hiley, C. (1989) Effects of moderate hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis on hemodynamic changes induced by endothelin-1 in the pithed rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 98: 1055–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baydoun, A., Peers, S., Cirino, G., and Woodward, B. (1989) Effects of endothelin-1 on the rat isolated heart. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13 (S uppl. 5): S193 — S196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Firth, J., Roberts, A., and Raine, A. (1990) Effect of endothelin on the function of the isolated perfused working heart. Clin. Sci. 79: 221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lerman, A., Kubo, S., Tschumperlin, L., and Burnett, J. (1992) Plasma endothelin concentrations in humans with end stage heart failure and after heart transplantation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 20: 849–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lerman, A., Sandok, E., Hildebrand, J., and Burnett, J. (1992) Inhibition of endothelium derived relasing factor enhances endothelin mediated vasoconstriction. Circulation 85: 1894, 1895.Google Scholar
  81. Hemodynamic Actions of Endothelin 187 Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Tippins, J. R., Antoniw, J. W., and Maseri, A. (1989) Endothelin-1 is a potent constrictor in conductive and resistive coronary arteries. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13 (Suppl. 5):S 177 — S179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Kurihara, H., Yamaoki, K., Nagai, R., Yoshizumi, M., Takaku, F., Satoh, H,. Inui, J., and Yazaki, Y. (1989) Endothelin: a potent vasoconstrictor associated with coronary vasospasm. Life Sci. 44: 1937–1943.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Chester, A. H., Dashwood, M. R., Clarke, J. G., Larken, S. W., Davies, G. J., Tadjkarimi, S., Maseri, A., and Yacoub, M. H. (1989) Influence of endothelin on human coronary arteries and localization of its binding. Am. J. Cardiol. 63: 1395–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Kasuya, Y., Takuwa, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Kimura, S., Goto, K., and Masaki, T. (1989) Endothelin-1 induces vasoconstriction through two functionally distinct pathways in porcine coronary artery: contribution of phosphoinositide turnover. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 161: 1049–1055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Hom, G. J., Touhey, B., and Rubanyi, G. M. (1992) Effects of intracoronary administration of endothelin in anesthetized dogs: comparison with Bay K 8644 and U46619. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 19: 194–200.Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Cocks, T., Faulkner, N., Sudhir, K., and Angus, J. (1989) Reactivity of endothelin-1 on human and canine large veins compared with large arteries in vitro. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 171: 17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    DeNucci, G., Thomas, R., D’Orleans-Juste, P., Antunes, E., Walder, C., Warner, T., and Vane, J. (1988) Pressor effects of circulating endothelin are limited by its removal in the pulmonary circulation and by the release of prostacyclin and endotheium derived relaxing factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 9797–9800.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Filep, J. G., Battistini, B., and Sirois, P. (1990) Endothelin induces thromboxane release and contraction of isolated guinea pig airways. Life Sci. 47: 1845–1850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    White, S., Hathaway, D., Umans, J., Tallet, J., Abrahams, C., and Leff, A. (1991) Epithelial modulation of airway smooth muscle response to endothelin. Am. Rev. Respir. Di. 144: 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Uchida, Y., Ninomiya, H., Saotome, M., Nomura, A., Ohtsucka, M., Yanagisawa, M., Goto, K., Masaki, T., and Hasegawa, S. (1988) Endothelin, a novel vasoconstrictor peptide, as a potent bronchoconstrictor. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 154: 227, 228.Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    Macquin-Mavier, I., Levame, M., Istin, N., and Harf, A. (1989) Mechanisms of endothelin mediated bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 250:740–745.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Wallace, J., Keenan, C., MacNaughton, W., and McKnight, G. (1989) Comparison of the effects endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 on the rat stomach. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 167: 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Borges, R., Von Grafenstein, H., and Knight, D. (1989) Tissue selectivity of endothelin. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 165:223–230.Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Kozuka, M., Ito, T., Hirose, S., Takahashi, K., and Hagiwara, H. (1989) Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage dependent calcium channels and developing contraction through a second type calcium channels. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 159: 317–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Sakata, K. and Karaki, H. (1992) Effects of endothelin on cytosolic calcium level and mechanical activity in rat uterine smooth muscle. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 221: 9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Suzuki, Y. (1990) Properties of endothelin induced contractions in the rabbit non-pregnant and pregnant myometria. Fukushima J. Med. Sci. 36: 29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Eglen, R., Michel, A., Sharif, N., Swank, S., and Whiting, R. (1989) The pharmacological properties of the peptide, endothelin. Br. J. Pharmacol. 97: 1297–1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Yang, D. and Clark, K. (1992) Effect of endothelin-1 on the uterine vasculature of the pregnant and estrogen treated nonpregnant sheep. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 1642–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Svane, D., Larsson, B., Alm, P., Andersson, K., and Forman, A. (1993) Endothelin-1: immunocytochemistry, localization of binding sites and contractile effects in human uteroplacental smooth muscle. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168: 233–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert O. Banks
  • David M. Pollock
  • Jacqueline Novak

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations